De rol van het cerebellum bij emotie en depressie
10/2006; 10(5):131-135. DOI: 10.1007/BF03079098


Het vermoeden uit de jaren vijftig van de vorige eeuw dat het cerebellum betrokken is bij emotie en emotionele stoornissen
werd in de jaren zeventig bevestigd middels intracraniële elektrische stimulatie van het cerebellum. Al is de rol van het
cerebellum in relatie tot emotie en emotionele stoornissen tot op de dag van vandaag nog onvoldoende in kaart gebracht, er
zijn steeds meer aanwijzingen dat het cerebellum betrokken is bij het reguleren van emoties en dat verstoringen in deze regulatiefunctie
kunnen leiden tot vormen van psychopathologie, zoals depressie. Recentelijk onderzoek met behulp van transcraniële magnetische
stimulatie ondersteunt deze hypothesen en biedt aanknopingspunten voor een alternatieve behandeling van depressie.

22 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stimulation of the anterior cerebellar vermis (ACV) has been shown to be of therapeutic value in several patients with chronic intractable psychiatric disorders, although the mechanism of action of ACV stimulation remains obscure. The present study sought to clarify how cerebellar stimulation might function by investigating the behavioral and biochemical effects of ACV stimulation in rats. Stimulation was found to increase the amplitude of the acoustic startle response and to produce a borderline enhancement of the potentiated startle effect, results that were interpreted as evidence that ACV stimulation enhances responsiveness to significant environmental cues. A concurrent increase in dopamine turnover and a decrease in serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens suggest possible mechanisms of action of the stimulation. It is proposed that cerebellar stimulation may exert a positive therapeutic effect only in Type II schizophrenia (negative symptomatology), a category of cases possibly associated with an underactive mesolimbic dopamine pathway and, hence, not responsive to neuroleptic treatment.
    Biological Psychiatry 01/1986; 20(12):1267-76. DOI:10.1016/0006-3223(85)90111-8 · 10.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We review past results and present novel data to illustrate different ways in which TMS can be used to study neural plasticity. Procedural learning during the serial reaction time task (SRTT) is used as a model of neural plasticity to illustrate the applications of TMS. These different applications of TMS represent principles of use that we believe are applicable to studies of cognitive neuroscience in general and exemplify the great potential of TMS in the study of brain and behavior. We review the use of TMS for (1) cortical output mapping using focal, single-pulse TMS; (2) identification of the mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity using paired-pulse TMS techniques; (3) enhancement of the information of other neuroimaging techniques by transient disruption of cortical function using repetitive TMS; and finally (4) modulation of cortical function with repetitive TMS to influence behavior and guide plasticity.
    Neuropsychologia 03/1999; 37(2):207-17. DOI:10.1016/S0028-3932(98)00095-5 · 3.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High (10-20 Hz) and low frequency (1-5 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been explored for possible therapeutic effects in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. As part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the antidepressant effect of daily rTMS over the left prefrontal cortex, we evaluated changes in absolute regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after treatment with 1- and 20-Hz rTMS. Based on preclinical data, we postulated that high frequency rTMS would increase and low frequency rTMS would decrease flow in frontal and related subcortical circuits. Ten medication-free, adult patients with major depression (eight unipolar and two bipolar) were serially imaged using (15)O water and positron emission tomography to measure rCBF. Each patient was scanned at baseline and 72 hours after 10 daily treatments with 20-Hz rTMS and 10 daily treatments with 1 Hz rTMS given in a randomized order. TMS was administered over the left prefrontal cortex at 100% of motor threshold (MT). Significant changes in rCBF from pretreatment baseline were determined by paired t test. Twenty-hertz rTMS over the left prefrontal cortex was associated only with increases in rCBF. Significant increases in rCBF across the group of all 10 patients were located in the prefrontal cortex (L > R), the cingulate gyrus (L > R), and the left amygdala, as well as bilateral insula, basal ganglia, uncus, hippocampus, parahippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum. In contrast, 1-Hz rTMS was associated only with decreases in rCBF. Significant decreases in flow were noted in small areas of the right prefrontal cortex, left medial temporal cortex, left basal ganglia, and left amygdala. The changes in mood following the two rTMS frequencies were inversely related (r = -.78, p <.005, n = 10) such that individuals who improved with one frequency worsened with the other. These data indicate that 2 weeks of daily 20-Hz rTMS over the left prefrontal cortex at 100% MT induce persistent increases in rCBF in bilateral frontal, limbic, and paralimbic regions implicated in depression, whereas 1-Hz rTMS produces more circumscribed decreases (including in the left amygdala). These data demonstrate frequency-dependent, opposite effects of high and low frequency rTMS on local and distant regional brain activity that may have important implications for clinical therapeutics in various neuropsychiatric disorders.
    Biological Psychiatry 01/2001; 48(12):1133-41. DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(00)01065-9 · 10.26 Impact Factor
Show more