Evaluation of the cytology of uterus, vagina, and clitoris as predictors of uterine condition in the mare

Comparative Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 0.37). 03/2006; 14(4):186-190. DOI: 10.1007/s00580-006-0596-4


Detection of venereal disease and acute or chronic endometritis can be achieved by cytological examination. The presence of significant numbers of neutrophils in the uterine smear is the best indication for equine endometritis. Uterine function may be evaluated by examining clitoral or vaginal smears. In this study, 20 nonpregnant mares were selected and their reproductive functions were evaluated by rectal palpation. The levels of progesterone were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Cytological smears were prepared from clitoris, vagina, and uterus. A wet swab was applied to the clitoral fossa and the collected material transferred to a microscope slide. Vaginal samples were collected using 30cm wet swabs. Uterine samples were collected from uterine lavage fluid. There was no significant difference (P≥0.05) between cell densities in the estrus phase (p4<1ng/ml) compared with the interval between estrus phases (p4>1ng/ml). Significant differences (P<0.05) were noted in epithelial cell, lymphocyte, and neutrophil densities between diestrus phase (p4≥3.5ng/ml) and other phases (p4<3.5ng/ml). Epithelial, neutrophil, and lymphocyte densities were significantly different between clitoral, vaginal and uterine smears (P<0.05). There were significant differences in epithelial cells and neutrophils of vaginal and uterine smears in mares affected by metritis compared with repeat breeder and normal mares. We concluded that the clitoral cytology of mares could not predict uterine physiology but evaluation of vaginal cytology showed more appropriate potential. However, further study is needed to assess vaginal cytology in comparison with other methods for evaluating uterine reproductive physiology.

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Available from: Mohammad Rahim Ahmadi, Jun 29, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxygen metabolism of neutrophils in peripheral blood of mares in relation to intensity of endometrium inflammations. The study involved 36 half-breed mares, aged 4-22 years, showing fertility disturbances. In 26 mares neutrophils were found in uteral smears, which indicated endometritis (15 – moderate inflammation and 11 – severe inflammation). In the rest mares, cytological examination excluded inflammation. Blood samples were evaluated in terms of neutrophils chemiluminescence without stimulation (CL-WS) and with stimulation by opsonised zymosan (CL-OZ). The study demonstrated (only in case of CL-WS) an increase in chemiluminescence of cells in mares with a severe inflammation of the endometrium. The increased chemiluminescence activity was accompanied by a decrease in activation index (OZ/WS) of neutrophils, suggesting some imbalance between production and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The correlation analysis demonstrated a statistically significant relation between the intensity of the uterus inflammation, which was verified by cytological examination and CL-WS of peripheral blood neutrophils, as well as their activation index. The obtained results suggest that activated neutrophils are an important source of ROS which can play a role in the pathogenesis of endometritis in mares.
    Bulletin- Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 01/2012; 56(1):51-56. DOI:10.2478/v10213-012-0010-8 · 0.36 Impact Factor