Somatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies?

University College London
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.48). 11/2001; 29(6):499-511. DOI: 10.1023/A:1012277125119


This study investigated the performance of boys with psychopathic tendencies and comparison boys, aged 9 to 17 years, on two tasks believed to be sensitive to amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex functioning. Fifty-one boys were divided into two groups according to the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD, P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, in press) and presented with two tasks. The tasks were the gambling task (A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994) and the Intradimensional/Extradimensional (ID/ED) shift task (R. Dias, T. W. Robbins, & A. C. Roberts, 1996). The boys with psychopathic tendencies showed impaired performance on the gambling task. However, there were no group differences on the ID/ED task either for response reversal or extradimensional set shifting. The implications of these results for models of psychopathy are discussed.

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Available from: Derek G V Mitchell, Oct 10, 2015
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    • "Les écrits scientifiques démontrent que les liens entre la mentalisation et la présence des TC chez l'enfant ont maintes fois été étudiés (Allen et collab., 2008; Blair et collab., 2001; Fonagy et collab., 2002; Sharp, 2006; Sharp et collab., 2007). Les liens entre l'empathie et les manifestations des TC ont également fait l'objet de plusieurs recherches (Arsenio et Fleiss, 1996; Hugues, Dunn et White, 1998; Hugues, White, Sharpen et Dunn, 2000). "
    01/2014; 3:77. DOI:10.7202/1028013ar
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    • "The consistency of findings is remarkable given the wide age ranges used in the studies and the diverse methods for assessing emotional responsiveness. Of particular relevance to whether CU traits may be important for designating an etiologically distinct subgroup of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems is that several studies reported that children or adolescents with severe conduct problems but normative levels of CU traits show no deficits in their recognition of emotions in others (Blair, Colledge, Murray, & Mitchell, 2001; Dadds, El Masry, Wimalaweera, & Guastella, 2008; Dadds, Perry, et al., 2006; Fairchild, Stobbe, Van Goozen, Calder, & Gooyer, 2010; Stevens, Charman, & Blair, 2001) and show an enhanced emotional responsiveness to distress cues in others (Kimonis et al., 2006; Kimonis, Frick, Muñoz, & Aucoin, 2008; Loney et al., 2003). Such findings suggest that CU traits distinguish among subgroups of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems who show very different emotional characteristics. "
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    ABSTRACT: This article provides a comprehensive review of the research on the use of callous and unemotional (CU) traits for designating an important subgroup of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems. It focuses on the etiological significance of recognizing this subgroup of youths with severe conduct problems, its implications for diagnostic classification, and the treatment implications of this research. The review highlights limitations in existing research and provides directions for future research. The available research suggests that children and adolescents with severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits show distinct genetic, cognitive, emotional, biological, environmental, and personality characteristics that seem to implicate different etiological factors underlying their behavior problems relative to other youths with severe conduct problems. Recognizing these subgroups could be critical for guiding future research on the causes of severe conduct problems in children and adolescents. Further, children and adolescents with both severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits appear to be at risk for more severe and persistent antisocial outcomes, even controlling for the severity of their conduct problems, the age of onset of their conduct problems, and common comorbid problems, which supports the clinical importance of designating this group in diagnostic classification systems. Finally, although children and adolescents with both severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits tend to respond less positively to typical interventions provided in mental health and juvenile justice settings, they show positive responses to certain intensive interventions tailored to their unique emotional and cognitive characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Bulletin 06/2013; 140(1). DOI:10.1037/a0033076 · 14.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Curiosamente, os estudos de Schmitt et al. (1999) realizados com psicopatas, apesar de condicionarem a remuneração ao desempenho, não encontraram diferenças relativamente ao grupo controlo. Pelo contrário, Blair et al. (2001) e Mitchell et al. (2002) encontraram diferenças no mesmo tipo de população , não tendo oferecido qualquer tipo de remuneração, resultado que atribuíram à utilização de instruções explícitas, não utilizadas por Schmitt et al. (1999). Fernie e Tunney (2006) compararam o efeito das instruções (sugestão de que há baralhos melhores e piores vs. sem sugestão) e do tipo de reforço (real vs. imitação), tendo concluído que o desempenho só é afetado pela utilização de reforço real quando não são dadas instruções detalhadas. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a widely used task in the assessment of the decision-making ability. In this article, we conduct a literature review by comparing IGT versions, different performance assessment measures, and changes to procedures including feedback, spatial randomization of decks, number of trials, number of cards per deck, instructions, payment, and rewards and punishments. On basis of this analysis, we conclude that different versions of the task, changes in application procedures and different measures used to assess the task have an impact on performance, thereby affecting comparison among studies and generalization of results. Finally, we offer suggestions to define adequate procedures.
    Psicologia Teoria e Pesquisa 06/2013; 29(2):201-210.
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