Somatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies?

University College London
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology (Impact Factor: 3.48). 11/2001; 29(6):499-511. DOI: 10.1023/A:1012277125119


This study investigated the performance of boys with psychopathic tendencies and comparison boys, aged 9 to 17 years, on two tasks believed to be sensitive to amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex functioning. Fifty-one boys were divided into two groups according to the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD, P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, in press) and presented with two tasks. The tasks were the gambling task (A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994) and the Intradimensional/Extradimensional (ID/ED) shift task (R. Dias, T. W. Robbins, & A. C. Roberts, 1996). The boys with psychopathic tendencies showed impaired performance on the gambling task. However, there were no group differences on the ID/ED task either for response reversal or extradimensional set shifting. The implications of these results for models of psychopathy are discussed.

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    • "Les écrits scientifiques démontrent que les liens entre la mentalisation et la présence des TC chez l'enfant ont maintes fois été étudiés (Allen et collab., 2008; Blair et collab., 2001; Fonagy et collab., 2002; Sharp, 2006; Sharp et collab., 2007). Les liens entre l'empathie et les manifestations des TC ont également fait l'objet de plusieurs recherches (Arsenio et Fleiss, 1996; Hugues, Dunn et White, 1998; Hugues, White, Sharpen et Dunn, 2000). "

    01/2014; 3:77. DOI:10.7202/1028013ar
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    • "The consistency of findings is remarkable given the wide age ranges used in the studies and the diverse methods for assessing emotional responsiveness. Of particular relevance to whether CU traits may be important for designating an etiologically distinct subgroup of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems is that several studies reported that children or adolescents with severe conduct problems but normative levels of CU traits show no deficits in their recognition of emotions in others (Blair, Colledge, Murray, & Mitchell, 2001; Dadds, El Masry, Wimalaweera, & Guastella, 2008; Dadds, Perry, et al., 2006; Fairchild, Stobbe, Van Goozen, Calder, & Gooyer, 2010; Stevens, Charman, & Blair, 2001) and show an enhanced emotional responsiveness to distress cues in others (Kimonis et al., 2006; Kimonis, Frick, Muñoz, & Aucoin, 2008; Loney et al., 2003). Such findings suggest that CU traits distinguish among subgroups of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems who show very different emotional characteristics. "
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    • "Curiosamente, os estudos de Schmitt et al. (1999) realizados com psicopatas, apesar de condicionarem a remuneração ao desempenho, não encontraram diferenças relativamente ao grupo controlo. Pelo contrário, Blair et al. (2001) e Mitchell et al. (2002) encontraram diferenças no mesmo tipo de população , não tendo oferecido qualquer tipo de remuneração, resultado que atribuíram à utilização de instruções explícitas, não utilizadas por Schmitt et al. (1999). Fernie e Tunney (2006) compararam o efeito das instruções (sugestão de que há baralhos melhores e piores vs. sem sugestão) e do tipo de reforço (real vs. imitação), tendo concluído que o desempenho só é afetado pela utilização de reforço real quando não são dadas instruções detalhadas. "
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