Active biomonitoring with wet and dry moss: a case study in an urban area

Environmental Chemistry Letters (Impact Factor: 1.62). 01/2009; 7(1):55-60. DOI: 10.1007/s10311-008-0135-4

ABSTRACT Active biomonitoring of the air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum
girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation for 3 and 6months, respectively, at three different sites.
Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by INAA. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated
moss bags was evident for Al, Cr, Fe, Zn and Sr. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs were depleted in the moss tissue during
the time of exposure. For most of the elements the accumulation after 6months exceeded that observed after 3months.

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    ABSTRACT: In urban environments, human exposure to air pollutants is expected to be significantly increased, especially near busy traffic streets, street canyons, tunnels, etc. where urban topography and microclimate may additionally cause poor air conditions giving rise to pollution hotspots. As a practical and cost-effective approach, active moss biomonitoring survey of some major and trace element air pollution was performed in the Belgrade street canyons and city tunnel in 2011 with the aim to evaluate possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for investigation of the small-scale vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of the elements. In five street canyons, the moss bags were hung at heights of about 4, 8 and 16 m, during 10 weeks, and also, for the same time, the moss bags were exposed in the tunnel, in front of and out of it. After the exposure period, the concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in the moss were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. According to the results, in all street canyons, the vertical distribution patterns of the moss elements concentration (Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) showed statistically significant decrease from the first to the third heights of bags exposure. In the tunnel experiment, from inner to out of the tunnel, for Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K and Zn, decreasing trend of concentrations was obtained. Significantly higher concentration of the elements was pronounced for the tunnel in comparison with the street canyons. The results indicate that the use of S. girgensohnii moss bags is a simple, sensitive and inexpensive way to monitor the small-scale inner city spatial distribution of airborne major and trace element content.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 02/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed in four parking garages in downtown of Belgrade with the aim to provide multi-pollutant assessment. Concentrations of 16 US EPA priority PAHs and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were determined in PM10 samples. The carcinogenic health risk of employees' occupational exposure to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) and PAHs (B[a]A, Cry, B[b]F, B[k]F, B[a]P and DB[ah]A) was estimated. A possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for monitoring of trace element air pollution in semi-enclosed spaces was evaluated as well. The results showed that concentrations of PM10, Cd, Ni and B[a]P exceeded the EU Directive target values. Concentration of Zn, Ba and Cu were two orders of magnitude higher than those measured at different urban sites in European cities. Cumulative cancer risk obtained for heavy metals and PAHs was 4.51 × 10−5 and 3.75 × 10−5 in M and PP, respectively; upper limit of the acceptable US EPA range is 10−4. In the moss, higher post-exposure than pre-exposure (background) element concentrations was observed. In comparison with instrumental monitoring data, similar order of abundances of the most elements in PM10 and moss samples was found. However, using of the S. girgensohnii moss bag technique in indoor environments needs further justification.
    Atmospheric Environment. 01/2014; 85:31–40.
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    ABSTRACT: An active biomonitoring study using Sphagnum moss peat as low-cost sorbent was conducted to assess the air quality in some areas from Dorna Basin (Romania). The sorbent exposure period occurred between May and September 2009, and four areas from Dorna Basin: Caliman, Tolovanu, Poiana Negrii and Poiana Stampei were selected for this purpose. The concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Mn and Fe) in the sorbent samples were used as an indicator of the level of air pollution in the studied regions. The graphite-furnace electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the total concentration of heavy metals in the sorbent samples after each exposure stage (30 days). Accumulated heavy metals in the exposed Sphagnum moss peat reflect the atmospheric depositions and were used to calculate the values of enrichment factor (EF), in each case. On the basis of the enrichment factor values the environmental impact was estimated using global pollution index method (Rojanschi method). An original scale of evaluation marks was proposed for the calculation of global pollution index. The obtained results show that the active biomonitoring studies of air pollution is a simple and economical method that can be used for the assessment of environmental impact.
    Environmental engineering and management journal 08/2012; 11(8):1527-1534. · 1.12 Impact Factor


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May 27, 2014