Active biomonitoring with wet and dry moss: a case study in an urban area

Environmental Chemistry Letters (Impact Factor: 1.62). 01/2009; 7(1):55-60. DOI: 10.1007/s10311-008-0135-4

ABSTRACT Active biomonitoring of the air quality in Belgrade, Serbia, was performed using the moss Sphagnum
girgensohnii. Moss bags were exposed in parallel with and without irrigation for 3 and 6months, respectively, at three different sites.
Twenty-nine elements were determined in the exposed moss samples by INAA. For all exposure periods, higher uptake in the irrigated
moss bags was evident for Al, Cr, Fe, Zn and Sr. Elements such as Cl, K, Rb and Cs were depleted in the moss tissue during
the time of exposure. For most of the elements the accumulation after 6months exceeded that observed after 3months.

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    ABSTRACT: Active biomonitoring with wet and dry moss bags was used to examine trace element atmospheric deposition in the urban area of Belgrade. The element accumulation capability of Sphagnum girgensohnii Russow was tested in relation to atmospheric bulk deposition. Moss bags were mounted for five 3-month periods (July 2005–October 2006) at three representative urban sites. For the same period monthly bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected. The concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses and atomic absorption spectrometry. Significant accumulation of most elements occurred in the exposed moss bags compared with the initial moss content. High correlations between the elements in moss and bulk deposits were found for V, Cu, As, and Ni. The enrichment factors of the elements for both types of monitor followed the same pattern at the corresponding sites.
    Environmental Pollution 10/2008; · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of growth of autoirrigated, shaded transplants of Pseudoscleropodium purum on the quantification of tissue concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, V and Zn, were investigated in 4 exposure periods, each of 56days, at 7 sampling sites (contaminated and uncontaminated). Concentrations of the elements in the basal portions of the moss shoots were compared with the concentrations in the portions of the shoots that grew during the exposure period. Mercury and V were present at lower concentrations in the new portions of the shoots than in the basal portions, whereas the opposite was true for Cd, Cu and Zn. The magnitude of error introduced by growth was not negligible, and in some cases was higher than 40%, relative to the results obtained by analysis of the whole shoot. Devitalization of moss prior to its use as transplant material is recommended to avoid growth of the plant during the exposure period. Keywords Pseudoscleropodium purum -Transplants-Heavy metals-Contamination-Pollution
    Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 01/2009; 63(1):1-11. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In urban environments, human exposure to air pollutants is expected to be significantly increased, especially near busy traffic streets, street canyons, tunnels, etc. where urban topography and microclimate may additionally cause poor air conditions giving rise to pollution hotspots. As a practical and cost-effective approach, active moss biomonitoring survey of some major and trace element air pollution was performed in the Belgrade street canyons and city tunnel in 2011 with the aim to evaluate possibility of using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bags for investigation of the small-scale vertical and horizontal distribution patterns of the elements. In five street canyons, the moss bags were hung at heights of about 4, 8 and 16 m, during 10 weeks, and also, for the same time, the moss bags were exposed in the tunnel, in front of and out of it. After the exposure period, the concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in the moss were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. According to the results, in all street canyons, the vertical distribution patterns of the moss elements concentration (Al, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) showed statistically significant decrease from the first to the third heights of bags exposure. In the tunnel experiment, from inner to out of the tunnel, for Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K and Zn, decreasing trend of concentrations was obtained. Significantly higher concentration of the elements was pronounced for the tunnel in comparison with the street canyons. The results indicate that the use of S. girgensohnii moss bags is a simple, sensitive and inexpensive way to monitor the small-scale inner city spatial distribution of airborne major and trace element content.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 02/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor


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May 27, 2014