Stockplant Management for Optimized Rhizogenesis in Tectona grandis Stem Cuttings
ABSTRACT A 5-year stand of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) was coppiced in 1999 and converted into a vegetative multiplication garden. Subsequently, three harvesting regimes
for the collection of single node stem cuttings were imposed: (1) once – in March (H1), (2) twice – in March and September (H2) and (3) three times in March, July and November (H3). Cuttings were treated basally with either:- T0 – control (6h in water), T1 – half the recommended dose of a mixture of IBA and thiamine (500ppm IBA +400ppm thiamine) or T2 – the full dose of the same mixture (1000ppm IBA +800ppm thiamine). Cuttings receiving IBA +thiamine rooted significantly
better than untreated cuttings, but even the best treatment only resulted in 38.3±3.8% rooting. This treatment produced
the greatest number of roots (5.2–12.1). The full dose treatment appears to have been supra-optimal. Rooting ability was also
affected by the frequency of stockplant pruning, with cuttings from stockplants pruned twice per year having the greatest
rooting percentage (27.8±3.8%) and the most roots (9.2±4.8). This bi-annual pruning (H2) resulted in the greatest number of rooted propagules (2.6 and 4.2 times more than H1 and H3, respectively). There was a significant interaction between Treatment×Pruning frequency. Bi-annual hedging of teak stockplants
is recommended for practical purposes, although further work is required to achieve commercially acceptable levels of rooting
from coppiced tree stumps.
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ABSTRACT: Stockplants of Triplochiton scleroxylon were grown in controlled-environment cabinets at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Edinburgh, to test the effects of stockplant illumination on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings. The environmental variables were: (1) irradiance (PAR = 106 202 and 246 μmol m−2s−1) with a uniform light quality (red: far red ratio=1.75); (2) light quality (R:FR = 1.6 and 6.3) with a uniform irradiance (PAR=294 μmol m−2s−1); and (3) irradiance (PAR=250 and 650 μmol m−2s−1) and nutrients (with and without 0.2% solution of 1:1:1, N:P:K) at a uniform light quality (R:FR=6.3). In all experiments, measurements were made of shoot length and leaf size and in the third experiment, the net photosynthetic rates of each leaf were determined prior to taking cuttings. Leaf area and leaf and stem dry weights were measured, as were their starch and reflux-soluble carbohydrate contents.The results showed that decreasing R:FR and irradiance independently increased both shoot growth and rooting ability. Strong positive relationships between photosynthesis and rooting were found when stockplants were grown at low irradiance (250 μmol m−2s−1) with and without fertilizers. A similar relationship was found, at high irradiance (650 μmol m−2s−1) only when nutrients were added. A strong negative relationship between the same parameters occurred without fertilizers at high irradiance. In addition, a weak negative relationship was found between rates of photosynthesis and the starch content of cuttings. It is concluded that end-product inhibition prevented the rooting of cuttings from stockplants grown without fertilizers at high irradiance with an R:FR ratio of 6.3.Forest Ecology and Management. 01/1992;
- Trees-structure and Function - TREES-STRUCT FUNCT. 01/1996; 10(5).
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ABSTRACT: Single-node leafy and leafless cuttings harvested from one-year-old, 1.3 to 1.5 m tall Leucaena leucocephala seedlings were successfully rooted in a non-mist propagator which is suitable for use in the rural tropics. Cuttings with a leaf attached rooted more successfully than those without a leaf (71% and 39% respectively) and clones differed significantly (43% to 71%). There was also a clear pattern in rooting ability of cuttings collected sequentially down the main stem. Cuttings rooted most successfully when taken from node five to 13, counting from the apex; this was the region where internodes were longest (64 to 109 mm) of moderate diameter (2.9 to 5.5 mm) and all cuttings had a leaf attached.Agroforestry Systems 07/1998; 42(2):149-157. · 1.37 Impact Factor
New Forests (2006) 3l:91 96
DOI 10. I 007/s1 1056-004-736 I -9
@ Springer 2006
Stockplant management for optim ized rhizogenesis
in Tectons grandis stem cuttings
SANJAY SINGH*, A.S. BHANDARI and S.A. ANSARI
Tropical Forest Research Institute, P.O. - RFRC, Jabalpur 482021, Intlia; *Author for correspon_
dence (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; phone; 91-76i-5044009; fax: gl-76i-2s404g4)
Received 16 July 2003; accepted in revised lorm 2 December 2004
Key words: coppice shoots, IAA, Root number and length, semi hardwood cuttings, Thiamine
Abstract. A 5-year stand olteak (Tectona grandis L. f.) was coppiced in 1999 and converted into a
vegetative multiplication garden. Subsequently, three harvesting regimes for the collection of single
node stem cuttings were imposed: (1) once - in March (I1r), (2) twice in March and September
(112) and (3) three times in March, July and November (H3). Cuttings were treated basally with
either:- 7o control (6 h in water), z1 hall the recommended dose ol a mixture of IBA and
thiamine (500 ppm IBA + 400 ppm thiamine) or z2 the full dose of the same mixture (1000 ppm
IBA + 800 ppm thiamine). Cuttings receiving IBA + thiamine rooted significantly better ihan
untreated cuttings, but even the best treatment only resulted in 38.3 + 3.8y0 rooting. This treat-
ment produced the greatest number olroots (5.2 12.1). The full dose treatment appears to have
been supra-optimal. Rooting ability was also affected by the frequency ofstockplant pruning, with
cuttings from stockplants pruned twice per year having the greatest rooting percentage
(21 .8 + 3.8%) and the most roots (9.2 + 4.8). This bi-annual pruning (I12) resulted in the greatest
number of rooted propagules (2.6 and 4.2 times more than H1 and H3, respectively). There was a
significant interaction between Treatment x Pruning frequency. Bi-annual hedging of teak stock-
plants is recommended for practical purposes, although further work is required to achieve
commercially acceptable levels of rooting from coppiced tree stumps.
The commercially important traits such as a long, clear and straight bole and
good wood quality manifest themselves as the tree matures. However, the
potential for adventitious rhizogenesis and thus the ease of vegetative prop-
agation declines with aging (Francelet 1979). As a result, mature trees with
proven superior traits often remain uncloned. To enhance rooting potential
of shoot cuttings, stockplants are commonly subjected to regular pruning and
hedging; conferring good rooting ability in radiata pine (Libby "t ut. ln4,
loblolly and slash pine (van Buijtenan et al. lgl.i). yeliow cedar (Russell
1993) and dipterocarps (Kantarli 1995). Improved rooting can also be
achieved by pre-severance micro-injections of auxins (Leakey 1992) andlor
manipulation of the stockplant environment, such as exposure to various
qualitative and quantitative irradiance regimes (Leakey and Storeton-west
1992; Hoad and Leakey 1994, 1996). of these regular pruning and hedging of
stockplants is also used to prevent the onset of maturation (Bolstad and
Libby 1982). Hedging is thus an important stockplant management operation
in a vegetative multiplication garden (vMG) or hedge orchard, providing a
regular supply of a large scale vegetative propagules of superior genotypes for
Teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) is a high quality tropical iimber with well-
recognized genetic variation (wood 1993), but maturation poses a severe
constraint to its vegetative propagation (Prasad et al. 1992). The present study
was undertaken to determine a suitable hedging schedule for teak stockplants
that optimizing rejuvenation and adventitious rooting.
Material and methods
ln 1999, the plants in a five year old vegetative multiplication garden of teak
were randomly allocated to three treatments, and subjected to three annual
hedging schedules, (Ht : once in March; H2 : twice in March and Sep-
tember and H3 : three times in March, July and November). At the end of the
year, three blocks of ten stockplants per treatment were harvested to determine
the number of coppice shoots per stockplant and the number of nodes per
Subsequently, in the third week of May 2000, a total of 270 single node
semi-hardwood coppice-shoots cuttings, 90 each from three hedging schedules
was collected and arranged in 27 groups of ten cuttings each for allocation
as: 3 hedging regimes x 3 auxin treatments x 3 replicates. The cuttings were
then surface sterilized with 0.1% mercuric chloride for 5 minutes and their
basal cut ends (upto 2.0 cm) treated for 6 h with:- Z1 : water, Tz : rec-
ommended half dose: 500 ppm IBA + 400 ppm thiamine or Z3 : full dose:
1000 ppm IBA + 800 ppm thiamine as described by Ansari et al. (2002).
The top cut ends of the treated cuttings were sealed with inert paraffin wax to
avoid desiccation. Each treated cutting was planted in a single polythene bag
(15 cm x23 cm) filled with formaldehyde fumigated coarse river sand, irri-
gated on requirement and maintained in the natural environment (tempera-
ture: min- 25.5 + 0.8oC, max- 35.4 + 2.7"C; relative humidity: min-
50.7 + 15.7o/o, max- 86.3 + ll.0%) till the termination of the experiment
after 8 weeks.
Data were recorded for each hedging schedule (coppice shoots per stock-
plant and nodes per coppice shoot or stockplant) at end of the year and
characteristics of the vegetative propagules (sprouting, callusing, rooting, root
number and root length) at the termination of the experiment. Analysis of
variance was used to test the statistical significance between treatments.
Further evaluations of signiflcant differences were done using LSD
(p < 0.05). These analyses examined the effects of different hedging sched-
ules, auxin treatments and their interactions, in terms of the characteristics of
the coppice shoots, and the various rooting parameters (Gomez and Gomez
Results and discussion
The different hedging schedules significantly affected the production and size of
vegetative propagules. The number of nodes per coppice shoot declined with
increasing frequency of hedging, while the number of shoots produced'in-
creased with the increasing frequency of hedging. The overall effect on the
number of nodes per stockplant was constant (Table 1). However, the rooting
ability of single node, semi-hardwood cuttings from coppice shoots of different
hedging schedules exhibited significant variation in their regeneration potential
as evidenced by sprouting, callusing, rooting and root number. The bi-annual
hedging treatment resulted in the greatest percentage of cuttings rooted
(Table 2) and greatest percentage of surviving plantlets per stockplant (Fig-
ure l). Stockplant with many weak coppice shoots produced in three hedgings
per year had poor rooting potential (Table 2) as reported by Menzies (1992).
The poor coppice shoot production (Table 1) and rooting potential (Table 2)
in stockplants pruned only once appears to reflect a lack ofrejuvenated axillary
In agreement with the previous studies, the hedging of teak stockplants
provided a continuous supply of orthotropic shoots with higher rooting
potential due to their emergence from the comparatively juvenile axillary buds
located at the lower nodes. The method has been effectively employed for
obtaining shoots with increasing rooting potential in apple (Hatcher 1959),
radiata pine (Libby et al. 1972) and eucalypts (Martin and Quillet 1974).
Further, Leakey (1983) has also recorded a continuous improvement in rooting
potential of single-node Triplochiton scleroxylon cuttings taken sequential
down a shoot.
The positive influence of indole 3-butyric acid (IBA) on adventitious rhi-
zogenesis in shoot cuttings is well documented (e.g., Tchoundjeu and Leakey
2000), while the synergistic relationship between IBA and thiamine has been
previously relrorted in teak (Ansari et al. 2002). The induction and growth of
adventitious roots was similar with both Tr (500 ppm IBA + 400 ppm thia-
mine) and T2 (1000 ppm IBA + 800 ppm thiamine) giving four times more
cuttings rooted and seven to nine times more roots than the water-treated
Table 1. Characteristics of vegetative propagules of teak stockplants as influenced by hedging
NS : Non significant.
Ht single harvest/year, H2 - two harvests/year and H3 - three harvests/year.
'.; oi d E;
q q \.'l
Fr !t Fr Z F]
Figure 1. Plantlet production per stockplant of teak as influenced by hedging schedules: (I11)
once, (H2) twice and (113) thric€ per year.
control. Thus, the significant interaction between hedging intensity and treat-
ment reduced the requirement for IBA and thiamine. The existence of an
optimal number of lateral shoots per stockplant (due to inter-shoot competi-
tion) has been previously reported by Leakey (1983), while the importance of
cutting size has been illustrated by Leakey and Mohammed (1985), and found
to be one of the most important determinants of rooting success by Dick et al.
(1999). This study has shown how stockplant pruning can be used to manip-
ulate these interacting factors. These results are in general agreement with the
findings of Girouard (1969) and Vietez and Vietez (1976). These authors
reported elevated levels of endogenous auxin/rooting cofactors in juvenile
cuttings of Hedera helix and Castanea sativa, in comparison to their difficult-
to-root mature phase.
In conclusion, the hedging of teak stockplants facilitates expression of
juvenility that not only reduces the requirement for growth regulators but also
ameliorates adventitious rhizogenesis and plantlet production. consequently, it
is recommended that for practical purposes teak stockplants should be hedged
twice a year. Further work is required to increase the rooting success of teak
cuttings. This may involve further manipulation of stockplants andior
improved propagation environments.
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