The importance of human needs during peacetime, retrospective peacetime, and the Persian Gulf War

International Journal of Stress Management (Impact Factor: 1.28). 12/1996; 4(1):47-62. DOI: 10.1007/BF02766072


Study 1 investigated the importance of human needs during peacetime in 1993 using a sample of 137 full-time workers in several
industries in the United States. Study 2 examined the importance of needs in 1990 (retrospective peacetime) and in 1991 (during
the Persian Gulf War)(both measured during the war) using a sample of 564 college students in the United States. In both studies,
two levels of needs (higher-order and lower-order needs) were identified during peacetime. Study 2 revealed that during the
war, all needs were rated as more important and only one factor was identified. During peacetime, the safety of one’s own
life was significantly more important than the safety of the country which was rated as the least important need. During the
war, the safety of the country was as important as the safety of one’s own life. Students who had spouse, family members,
and friends in the Middle East during Desert Storm differed significantly from those who did not in war-related stress and
the importance of several needs.

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