ABSTRACT A classical signal which agrees with the ideas of mathematical analysis on infinitesimal quantities possesses an infinite
information capacity, which contradicts the concept of information that is finite by definition. A real signal should have
some “threshold” for determining a finite step between its distinguishable states and the “limit” for the possible number
This paper considers the influence of the level of required energy, performance, and noise of the receiver on the capability
of distinguishing the set of states in the signal. It is shown that the generalized threshold is the constraint on the spectral
density of the signal energy and the limit is the constraint on the energy density with respect to time or spatial coordinate.
In the microcosm, a signal is a gradient of potential; the constraint of its perception speed in the case of motion results,
within the action threshold, in the fact that it changes in kinetic energy with changing potential cannot be determined. As
a result, the particle motion turns out defined only in a finite number of “reference” points separated by intervals determined
by the information threshold. Between reference points the motion has an uncertain, random, i.e., noisy character. The threshold
equation for finding random deviations of motion parameters which should generalize the known Schrödinger and Klein-Gordon
equations is discussed.
Information transmission capacity of space for electromagnetic signals is estimated based on the analysis of the densities
of the threshold and limiting energy.
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ABSTRACT: A measure is introduced of the information provided by an experiment. The measure is derived from the work of Shannon  and involves the knowledge prior to performing the experiment, expressed through a prior probability distribution over the parameter space. The measure is used to compare some pairs of experiments without reference to prior distributions; this method of comparison is contrasted with the methods discussed by Blackwell. Finally, the measure is applied to provide a solution to some problems of experimental design, where the object of experimentation is not to reach decisions but rather to gain knowledge about the world.The Annals of Mathematical Statistics 01/1956;
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ABSTRACT: The electromotive force due to thermal agitation in conductors is calculated by means of principles in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The results obtained agree with results obtained experimentally.Physical Review - PHYS REV X. 01/1928; 32(1):110-113.
- Physics-Uspekhi 01/2006; 176(7). · 1.87 Impact Factor