Signal physics

Physics of Particles and Nuclei (Impact Factor: 0.74). 11/2009; 40(6):773-800. DOI: 10.1134/S1063779609060021

ABSTRACT A classical signal which agrees with the ideas of mathematical analysis on infinitesimal quantities possesses an infinite
information capacity, which contradicts the concept of information that is finite by definition. A real signal should have
some “threshold” for determining a finite step between its distinguishable states and the “limit” for the possible number
of states.

This paper considers the influence of the level of required energy, performance, and noise of the receiver on the capability
of distinguishing the set of states in the signal. It is shown that the generalized threshold is the constraint on the spectral
density of the signal energy and the limit is the constraint on the energy density with respect to time or spatial coordinate.

In the microcosm, a signal is a gradient of potential; the constraint of its perception speed in the case of motion results,
within the action threshold, in the fact that it changes in kinetic energy with changing potential cannot be determined. As
a result, the particle motion turns out defined only in a finite number of “reference” points separated by intervals determined
by the information threshold. Between reference points the motion has an uncertain, random, i.e., noisy character. The threshold
equation for finding random deviations of motion parameters which should generalize the known Schrödinger and Klein-Gordon
equations is discussed.

Information transmission capacity of space for electromagnetic signals is estimated based on the analysis of the densities
of the threshold and limiting energy.