Disease resistance: A benefit of sociality in the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis (Isoptera: Termopsidae)
ABSTRACT The benefit of sociality in relation to disease susceptibility was studied in the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollis. Although contact with high concentrations of fungal conidia is lethal, the survivorship of nymphs exposed to spore suspensions
ranging from 6 × 106 to 2 × 108 spores/ml of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae increased with group size. The survivorship (measured as LT50) of isolated individuals ranged from 3.0 to 4.8 days, but infected nymphs living in groups of 10 and 25 individuals survived
significantly longer (5.6–8.3 and 5.6–9.1 days, respectively). In most cases, there were no significant differences in the
survival distributions of the 10- and 25-termite groups. When nymphs were infected with concentrations of 7 × 101–7 × 104 spores/ml and allowed to interact with healthy nestmates, fungal infections were not contracted by the unexposed termites.
Moreover, infected termites benefitted from social contact with unexposed nestmates: their survival rates were significantly
higher than those of infected termites living with similarly infected nestmates. Allogrooming, which increased in frequency
during and after exposure to conidia, appeared to remove potentially infectious spores from the cuticle, thus increasing termite
survivorship. These results suggest that allogrooming plays a crucial role in the control of disease and its death hazard
in termites. The infection-reducing advantage of group living may have been significant in the evolution of social behavior
in the Isoptera.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Rebeca B Rosengaus, Aug 13, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Christine A Nalepa
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- "A faecal pellet can be a source of microbial protein, but is also a mechanism for transmitting the resistant stages of prokaryotes, as well as semiochemicals and metabolites originating with the excretor and all its gut mutualists (Nalepa et al., 2001; Bell et al., 2007). Faecal pellets play a role in sanitising the nest (Rosengaus et al., 1998b, 2013) and also serve as bricks and mortar to plug holes and gaps, to build pillars and walls to partition galleries, and to erect barriers when galleries approach those of conspecifics adjacent in the log (Bell et al., 2007: fig. 9.4). "
ABSTRACT: 1. Numerous cladistic analyses have converged: termites are a monophyletic clade embedded within the paraphyletic cockroaches, and sister group to the biparental, wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus. The latter is therefore an appropriate model for testing assumptions regarding early termite evolution. 2. The ground plan of the termite ancestor is reviewed based on shared characters of ecology, life history and behavior in Cryptocercus and incipient termite colonies, and includes two levels of dependence: a reliance of all individuals on gut microbiota, and dependence of early instars on parental care. Both these conditions co-evolved with parent-to-offspring proctodeal trophallaxis. 3. The termite ancestor lived in a single log serving as food and nest. This ‘one-piece’ nesting ecology prioritizes nitrogen conservation and strongly influences interacting social, nutritional, and microbial environments. Each of these environments individually and in combination profoundly affect cockroach development. 4. Proctodeal trophallaxis integrates the social, nutritional, and microbial environments. A change in trophallactic behavior, from parental to alloparental, can, therefore, shift developmental trajectories, ultimately adding a third level of dependence. The death of gut protists during the host molting period and consequent interdependence of family members shifted the hierarchical level at which selection acted; fixation of eusociality quickly followed. 5. The basic nesting ecology did not change when termites evolved eusociality, the change occurred in the allocation and use of existing resources within the social group, driven by nitrogen scarcity, mediated by trophallaxis and made possible by a strongly lineage specific set of life history characteristics.Ecological Entomology 03/2015; 40(4). DOI:10.1111/een.12197 · 1.97 Impact Factor
- "Behavioural mechanisms include the use of vibratory displays to warn nestmates about the presence of lethal fungal concentrations to which they respond by absconding (Rosengaus et al., 1999b; Myles, 2002), or increasing rates of mutual grooming when exposed to pathogens (Rosengaus et al., 1998, 2000), and walling off of infected areas of a colony (Milner et al., 1998; Staples and Milner, 2000). Physiological mechanisms include fungistatic secretions associated with exocrine glands and faecal pellets of some termites that reduce microbial growth within nest chambers (Rosengaus et al., 1998, 2004), enhancement of resistance to infection through cellular and humoral immune responses (Rosengaus et al., 1999a; Traniello et al., 2002), and salivary gland secretions containing antibiotic peptides (Lamberty et al., 2001). These defensive mechanisms demand cooperation between members of social groups or altruistic behaviours of some colony members for the benefit of the whole colony, which result in avoidance, control or elimination of parasitic infections (Mü ller and Schmid-Hempel, 1993; Cremer et al., 2007). "
Dataset: Paper 1 (4)
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- "Furthermore, S. amabilis workers performed interspecific grooming, suggesting that M. symmetochus also exploit the active prophylactic behavior of its host. Allogrooming is an important prophylactic behavior in social insects to prevent fungal parasite transmission (Walker and Hughes, 2009; Reber et al., 2011; Hughes et al., 2002; Rosengaus et al., 1998; Morelos-Juárez et al., 2010). Our survey shows for the first time that the behavioral dynamics between an ant social parasite and its host during a pathogenic fungus outbreak, however, do support the idea that social parasites Megalomyrmex is helping with the disease management of Sericomyrmex ants. "
ABSTRACT: Ant social parasites evolve adaptive relationships with their hosts. Theoretically, coevolution predicts strong selection to maximize fitness of the parasite that minimizes costs to its host, which potentially leads to the evolution of benign interactions. We studied the demographic and behavioral traits of the ant social parasite Megalomyrmex symmetochus (Solenopsidini), an agro-predator that feeds on larvae and fungal garden products of their host, Sericomyrmex amabilis (Attini). Based on demographic data from 15 parasitized colonies, the proportion of parasitic workers to those of the host is 1:2. Moreover, defensive prophylactic behaviors observed during infections with Metarhizium brunneum, a generalist entomopathogen, and Escovopsis, a specialized fungal garden parasite, showed that S. amabilis works extensively to remove and control fungal infections, in contrast to M. symmetochus. M. symmetochus, however, performed intraspecific allogrooming during infections with Escovopsis and M. brunneum, suggesting that they may recognize fungal pathogens and indirectly limit dispersion of spores. Our results indicate that M. symmetochus did not have a strong role in maintaining a hygienic nest.Insectes Sociaux 02/2014; 61(x):xxx-xxx. DOI:10.1007/s00040-013-0331-5 · 1.31 Impact Factor