24-h smoking abstinence potentiates fMRI-BOLD activation to smoking cues in cerebral cortex and dorsal striatum

Duke University Medical Center Box 2701 Durham NC 27708 USA
Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 05/2009; 204(1):25-35. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-008-1436-9

ABSTRACT RationaleExposure to smoking-related cues can trigger relapse in smokers attempting to maintain abstinence.

ObjectivesIn the present study, we evaluated the effect of 24-h smoking abstinence on brain responses to smoking-related cues using
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

Materials and methodsEighteen adult smokers underwent fMRI scanning following smoking as usual (satiated condition) and following 24-h abstinence
(abstinent condition). During scanning, they viewed blocks of photographic smoking and control cues.

ResultsFollowing abstinence, greater activation was found in response to smoking cues compared to control cues in parietal (BA 7/31),
frontal (BA 8/9), occipital (BA 19), and central (BA 4) cortical regions and in dorsal striatum (putamen) and thalamus. In
contrast, no smoking cue greater than control cue activations were observed following smoking as usual. Direct comparisons
between conditions (satiated vs. abstinent) showed greater brain reactivity in response to smoking cues following abstinence.
In addition, positive correlations between pre-scan craving in the abstinent condition and smoking cue activation were observed
in right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) including superior frontal gyrus (BA 6/10), anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 32),
and supplementary motor area (BA 6).

ConclusionsThe present findings indicate that smoking abstinence significantly potentiates neural responses to smoking-related cues in
brain regions subserving visual sensory processing, attention, and action planning. Moreover, greater abstinence-induced craving
was significantly correlated with increased smoking cue activation in dmPFC areas involved in action planning and decision
making. These findings suggest that drug abstinence can increase the salience of conditioned cues, which is consistent with
incentive-motivation models of addiction.

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    Addiction 02/2015; 110(2):205-6. DOI:10.1111/add.12726 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wanting (incentive salience) is a psychological process, triggered by rewards and their cues or imagery, which normally provides an ‘oomph’ that spurs motivation for objects of desire. Typically ‘wanting’ is in conformity with significant needs. But ‘wanting’ can sometimes dissociate from needs and from deliberative plans in maladaptive ways. Most dramatically in drug addiction, when amplified excessively by changes in brain reactivity, ‘wanting’ can have pathological intensity. Other impulse control disorders, such as gambling and overeating, may possibly share a similar compulsive ‘wanting.’ And even in ordinary daily life, occasional dissociations of ‘wanting’ from needs might occur. Selective surges in ‘wanting’ may explain why under these conditions, rewards can be ‘wanted’ much more than they are needed or even ‘liked.’
    International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edited by James D. Wright (editor-in-chief, 04/2015: chapter Wanting vs Needing: pages 351-356; Elsevier.

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