Phenolic compounds and somatic embryogenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture (Impact Factor: 2.61). 01/2007; 90(1):25-29. DOI: 10.1007/s11240-007-9243-2

ABSTRACT Studies of phenolic compounds were performed during cell suspension cultures in relation with the induction of embryogenic
structures in two cultivars of cotton. Coker 312 produced embryogenic structures, unlike R405-2000 which was found to be a
non-embryogenic cultivar. Embryogenesis induction in Coker 312 was strongly linked to a higher content of caffeic, ferulic
and salicylic acids and to the appearance of p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, trans-resveratrol, catechin and naringenin.

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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) were isolated from cell suspensions of two cultivars of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and their biochemical characteristics were studied. PPO from Coker 312, an embryogenic cultivar, showed a highest affinity to catechol 20mM, and PPO from R405-2000, a nonembryogenic cultivar, showed a highest affinity to 4-methylcatechol 20mM. The optimal pH for PPO activity was 7.0 and 6.0 for Coker 312 and R405-2000, respectively. The enzyme had an optimal temperature of 25°C and was relatively stable at 20–30°C. Reducing sodium metabisulfite, ascorbic acid, dithiothreitol, SnCl2, and FeCl3 markedly inhibited PPO activity, whereas its activity was highly enhanced by Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ and was moderately inhibited by Ba2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+. The analysis revealed a single band on the sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis which corresponded to a molecular weight of 55kDa for Coker 312 and 42kDa for R405-2000.
    Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 08/2009; 158(2):285-301. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A protocol was established for cotton somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration. Using this protocol, highly efficient plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was obtained from more than 20 Chinese and Australian commercialized cotton cultivars including CCRI 12, CCRI 19, and Simian No 3. These three cultivars alone comprise more than 50% of the total cultivated cotton in China. Based on three criteria, the 20 tested cotton cultivars were classified into three different groups: easily embryogenesis-induced cultivars (such as CCRI 19, Simian No 3, Lumian 6, Sikral 1-3, Coker 201), moderately easy embryogenesis-induced cultivars (such as CCRI 16, CCRI 24, Simian No 4 and CCRI 29), and not easily embryogenesis-induced cultivars (such as CCRI 17, CCRI 30 and CCRI 27). The three criteria used included (1) the somatic embryogenesis ratios, (2) the time required to produce somatic embryogenesis, and (3) the number of the somatic embryos produced in each culture. Also, the plant hormone Zeatin (ZT) was used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis and had the highest induction ratio of 33.3%. Overall, this procedure simplifies cotton somatic embryogenesis from a multi-step culture process to a one-step culture process and shortens the culture cycle from 180 to 60-120 days. This protocol also makes it easier to control the somaclonal variation in plant tissue culture and facilitates the application of plant genetic engineering on cotton genetic improvement.
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    ABSTRACT: The direct induction of adventitious buds and somatic embryos from explants is a morphogenetic process that is under the influence of exogenous plant growth regulators and its interactions with endogenous phytohor-mones. We performed an in vitro histological analysis in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) shoot apexes and determined that the positioning of competent cells and their interaction with neighboring cells, under the influence of combinations of exogenously applied growth regulators (NAA/BAP and NAA/TDZ), allows the pre-procambial cells (PPCs) to act in different morphogenic pathways to establish niche competent cells. It is likely that there has been a habituation phenomenon during the regeneration and development of the microplants. This includes pro-moting the tillering of primary or secondary buds due to culturing in the absence of NAA/BAP or NAA/TDZ after a period in the presence of these growth regulators. Histo-logical analyses determined that the adventitious roots were derived from the dedifferentiation of the parenchymal cells located in the basal region of the adventitious buds, with the establishment of rooting pole, due to an auxin gradient. Furthermore, histological and histochemical analyses allowed us to characterize how the PPCs provide niches for multipotent, pluripotent and totipotent stem-like cells for vascular differentiation, organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in the peach palm. The histological and histochemical analyses also allowed us to detect the unicellular or multicellular origin of somatic embryogen-esis. Therefore, our results indicate that the use of growth regulators in microplants can lead to habituation and to different morphogenic pathways leading to potential niche establishment, depending on the positioning of the competent cells and their interaction with neighboring cells.
    Plant Cell Reports 01/2012; 31(8):1495-1515. · 2.94 Impact Factor

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