Phenolic compounds and somatic embryogenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsitum L.). Plant Cell Tiss Org Cult

Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture (Impact Factor: 2.13). 07/2007; 90(1):25-29. DOI: 10.1007/s11240-007-9243-2


Studies of phenolic compounds were performed during cell suspension cultures in relation with the induction of embryogenic
structures in two cultivars of cotton. Coker 312 produced embryogenic structures, unlike R405-2000 which was found to be a
non-embryogenic cultivar. Embryogenesis induction in Coker 312 was strongly linked to a higher content of caffeic, ferulic
and salicylic acids and to the appearance of p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, trans-resveratrol, catechin and naringenin.

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    • "On the other hand, we found that phenolic compounds, such as caffeine, which has been reported to induce DNA hypomethylation (Barrès et al. 2012), hydroxybenzoic acid and trans-cinnamic acid affect DNA methylation and inhibit the SE process in C. canephora at different levels (Nic-Can et al. unpublished data). These results were consistent with reports that indicate that phenolic compounds interfere with the SE process (Umehara et al. 2007; Kouakou et al. 2007), and they also inhibit the DNA methyltransferases activity (Causevic et al. 2005; Lee and Zhu 2006). These findings suggest that the phenolic compounds secreted during the SE process can affected the activity of DNA methyltransferases in C. arabica and; therefore, disrupt the SE process. "
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    ABSTRACT: Under in vitro conditions, differentiated plant cells can be induced to generate organs, shoots, or somatic embryos, which can regenerate a new functional plant. Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been relevant for clonal propagation for a wide range of important agronomical and economical crops. In addition, SE provides an interesting model to study epigenetic changes during plant development. For instance, during cellular differentiation, sophisticated epigenetics mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs can modulate the chromatin structure and change the expression of several genes. In this chapter, we describe the epigenetics events that modulate the embryogenic response in agronomical and important crops. Therefore, the knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during the SE process could help to increase the embryogenic capacity of different plants improving new strategies to increase agronomical traits of crops.
    Epigenetics in Plants of Agronomic Importance: Fundamentals and Applications, 1 edited by Alvarez-Venegas, Raúl, De la Peña, Clelia, Casas-Mollano, Juan Armando, 01/2014: chapter Epigenetic Advances on Somatic Embryogenesis of Agronomical and Important Crops: pages 91-109; Springer International Publishing., ISBN: 978-3-319-07971-4
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    • "Histological studies can reveal the events of cell division that occur during plant regeneration in vitro, thereby contributing to the understanding of plant development. Histochemical monitoring was used to determine the essential factors involved in the acquisition of embryogenic competence in cells and/or tissues (Kouakou et al. 2007; Pinto et al. 2011; Rocha et al. 2011) and the distinction of embryogenic competence from organogenetic events. The establishment of in vitro plant regeneration, through direct organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis in the peach palm, has been described (Almeida and Kerbauy 1996; Almeida and Almeida 2006; Graner 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The direct induction of adventitious buds and somatic embryos from explants is a morphogenetic process that is under the influence of exogenous plant growth regulators and its interactions with endogenous phytohor-mones. We performed an in vitro histological analysis in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) shoot apexes and determined that the positioning of competent cells and their interaction with neighboring cells, under the influence of combinations of exogenously applied growth regulators (NAA/BAP and NAA/TDZ), allows the pre-procambial cells (PPCs) to act in different morphogenic pathways to establish niche competent cells. It is likely that there has been a habituation phenomenon during the regeneration and development of the microplants. This includes pro-moting the tillering of primary or secondary buds due to culturing in the absence of NAA/BAP or NAA/TDZ after a period in the presence of these growth regulators. Histo-logical analyses determined that the adventitious roots were derived from the dedifferentiation of the parenchymal cells located in the basal region of the adventitious buds, with the establishment of rooting pole, due to an auxin gradient. Furthermore, histological and histochemical analyses allowed us to characterize how the PPCs provide niches for multipotent, pluripotent and totipotent stem-like cells for vascular differentiation, organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in the peach palm. The histological and histochemical analyses also allowed us to detect the unicellular or multicellular origin of somatic embryogen-esis. Therefore, our results indicate that the use of growth regulators in microplants can lead to habituation and to different morphogenic pathways leading to potential niche establishment, depending on the positioning of the competent cells and their interaction with neighboring cells.
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    • "Consequently, almost all transgenic cotton cultivars have been obtained by cross breeding after obtaining transgenic plants, an approach which is time consuming and expensive (Perlak, et al. 2001; Zhang, et al. 2005). Although regeneration efficiency via somatic embryogenesis has been improved in cotton in the past 20 years (Aydin, et al. 2006; Divya, et al. 2008; Han, et al. 2009; Hussain, et al. 2009; Khan, et al. 2006; Kouakou, et al. 2007; Michel, et al. 2008; Sun, et al. 2006; Wang, et al. 2008), genotype-dependent responses and prolonged culture periods still remain two of the major problems associated with cotton regeneration. In this study, we first attempted to investigate the effect of different factors (genotypes, explants, and plant growth regulators) on cotton somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration. "
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    ABSTRACT: A protocol was established for cotton somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration. Using this protocol, highly efficient plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was obtained from more than 20 Chinese and Australian commercialized cotton cultivars including CCRI 12, CCRI 19, and Simian No 3. These three cultivars alone comprise more than 50% of the total cultivated cotton in China. Based on three criteria, the 20 tested cotton cultivars were classified into three different groups: easily embryogenesis-induced cultivars (such as CCRI 19, Simian No 3, Lumian 6, Sikral 1-3, Coker 201), moderately easy embryogenesis-induced cultivars (such as CCRI 16, CCRI 24, Simian No 4 and CCRI 29), and not easily embryogenesis-induced cultivars (such as CCRI 17, CCRI 30 and CCRI 27). The three criteria used included (1) the somatic embryogenesis ratios, (2) the time required to produce somatic embryogenesis, and (3) the number of the somatic embryos produced in each culture. Also, the plant hormone Zeatin (ZT) was used to induce direct somatic embryogenesis and had the highest induction ratio of 33.3%. Overall, this procedure simplifies cotton somatic embryogenesis from a multi-step culture process to a one-step culture process and shortens the culture cycle from 180 to 60-120 days. This protocol also makes it easier to control the somaclonal variation in plant tissue culture and facilitates the application of plant genetic engineering on cotton genetic improvement.
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