Amplicons of fpv167 and fpv140, of 578 and 1,800bp, respectively, characteristic of the avipox viral genes, were amplified by PCR using DNA from viruses
isolated from eight Indian wild birds. BLAST and phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the fpv167 and fpv140 amplicons indicated that Fowlpox virus (FWPV) was the nearest phylogenetic neighbour to the viral isolates, from two Indian peacocks (Pavo cristatus), two golden pheasants (Chrysolophus pictus), one silver pheasant (Lopahura nycthemera) and one sparrow (Passer domesticus). However, the two isolates from the Indian little brown dove (Stigmatopelia senegalensis) and the common wood pigeon (Columba palumbus) formed a separate cluster with turkeypox and pigeonpox virus (PGPV) isolates when the phylogenetic tree was constructed
using the sequence of fpv167. When the phylogenetic analysis was done using the fpv140 gene sequence both isolates formed a cluster with isolates of PGPV. Thus, the results support that fpv140 gene along with the fpv167 gene should be used for phylogenetic analyses of avipoxviruses for better discrimination of the viruses. Additionally,
avian poxvirus isolated from wild birds of India were identical to those reported in Indian domestic birds, and phylogenetically
related to avian poxviruses reported from different parts of the world. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization
of avian poxviruses infecting different wild birds in India. The study shows that FWPV and PGPV cause infection in wild birds
irrespective of the species of birds indicating that these viruses are not species specific. Thus these viruses, which are
not host specific have the ability to cause infection in game birds, endangered birds and domestic birds and therefore could
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six clinical cases of avipoxvirus (APV) infection were investigated and molecular biologically studied. The samples were collected from different domesticated birds reared in the Egyptian backyard management system and were propagated on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs. The virus isolation was confirmed via PCR amplification of fpv167 (P4b) gene locus. All the studied isolates were characterized as Fowlpox-like viruses based on the amplicon length of fpv140 gene locus. The phylogenetic analysis of fpv167 (P4b) gene clustered Elsharqyia_FWPV1, Elsharqyia_FWPV2, Elsharqyia_FWPV3, Elsharqyia_FWPV4, and Elsharqyia_TKPV strains within subclade A1. Furthermore, Elsharqyia_PGPV strain was clustered within subclade A2 (Turkeypox virus) and showed 100 % nucleic acid identity with the wood pigeon Indian which was isolated in 2009. On the other hand, when the fpv140 gene was used for the phylogenetic analysis, Elsharqyia_PGPV was clustered within subclade A4 (Pigeonpox virus) with the other PGPVs. This study is considered the first molecular record for APVs circulating in the Egyptian birds. Further studies in a larger scale need to be developed to have a better understanding about the molecular characterization of the Egyptian APV strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen novel avipoxviruses have been isolated from birds from different regions of South Africa. These viruses could be divided into six groups, according to gross pathology and pock appearance on chick chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs). Histopathology revealed distinct differences in epidermal and mesodermal cell proliferation as well as immune cell infiltration caused by the different avipoxviruses, even within groups of viruses causing similar CAM gross pathology. In order to determine the genetic relationships between the viruses several conserved poxvirus genetic regions, corresponding to Vaccinia Virus (VACV) A3L (fpv167, VACV P4b), G8R (fpv 126, VLTF-1), H3L (fpv140, VACV H3L) and A11R-A12L (fpv175-176) were analysed phylogenetically. The South African avipoxvirus isolates in this study all grouped in clade A, either in subclade A2 or A3 of the avipoxvirus genus and differ from the commercial fowlpox vaccines (subclade A1) in use in the South African poultry industry. Analysis of different loci resulted in different branching patterns. There was no correlation between gross morphology, histopathology, pock morphology and phylogenetic grouping. Also, there was no correlation between geographical distribution and virus phenotype or genotype.
Journal of General Virology 07/2013; 94(Pt 10). DOI:10.1099/vir.0.054049-0 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Two novel avipoxviruses from South Africa have been sequenced, one from a Feral Pigeon (Columba livia) (FeP2) and the other from an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) (PEPV). We present a purpose-designed bioinformatics pipeline for analysis of next generation sequence data of avian poxviruses and compare the different avipoxviruses sequenced to date with specific emphasis on their evolution and gene content.
The FeP2 (282 kbp) and PEPV (306 kbp) genomes encode 271 and 284 open reading frames respectively and are more closely related to one another (94.4%) than to either fowlpox virus (FWPV) (85.3% and 84.0% respectively) or Canarypox virus (CNPV) (62.0% and 63.4% respectively). Overall, FeP2, PEPV and FWPV have syntenic gene arrangements; however, major differences exist throughout their genomes. The most striking difference between FeP2 and the FWPV-like avipoxviruses is a large deletion of ~16 kbp from the central region of the genome of FeP2 deleting a cc-chemokine-like gene, two Variola virus B22R orthologues, an N1R/p28-like gene and a V-type Ig domain family gene. FeP2 and PEPV both encode orthologues of vaccinia virus C7L and Interleukin 10. PEPV contains a 77 amino acid long orthologue of Ubiquitin sharing 97% amino acid identity to human ubiquitin.
The genome sequences of FeP2 and PEPV have greatly added to the limited repository of genomic information available for the Avipoxvirus genus. In the comparison of FeP2 and PEPV to existing sequences, FWPV and CNPV, we have established insights into African avipoxvirus evolution. Our data supports the independent evolution of these South African avipoxviruses from a common ancestral virus to FWPV and CNPV.
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