Neurobehavioral changes in mice offspring induced by prenatal exposure to acute toxicity of sodium selenite
ABSTRACT Selenium is an essential element with a narrow margin between beneficial and toxic effects. This study was aimed to determine
the neurobehavioral changes resulted from the prenatal exposure of mice to high doses of sodium selenite during fetal and
early postnatal development. Atomic absorption for monitoring the placental transfer of selenium to offspring was employed.
The developmental observations as well as the behavioral tests, such as sensory motor reflexes, and learning and memory test
in automatic reflex conditioner (shuttle box) (active avoidance responses) were applied. Adult mice was assigned into three
groups: the first group was remained as a control group given phosphate buffered saline; the second and the third groups were
orally administrated sodium selenite at doses of 1 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg of the diet, respectively started from the 7th day to the end of the gestation period. Appearance of body hair and opening of eyes of the pups from treated mothers were
delayed in a dose-dependent manner. The body weight gain came significantly lower than those of the control especially at
the higher dose. Selenite also inhibited the sensory motor reflexes in all elements of acts and postures in a dose dependent
manner. The active avoidance training-test indicated that selenite exposure was associated with learning impairment. Acetylcholine
recorded a significant decrease in almost all the period of this study. By using atomic absorption, we found a significant
high concentration of selenium in the brain, liver and kidney until the 40th postnatal day, indicating active transfer of selenium from mothers to embryos.
Key wordsselenium–atomic absorption–acetylcholine–learning–sensory motor reflexes
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ABSTRACT: Noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus is supposed to be associated with fluctuations in the plasma levels of several trace elements. There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in patients with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus and that these nutrients might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progression of this disorder. The aim of the present study is to compare the levels of essential trace and toxic elements including lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), vanadium (V), manganese (Mn), barium (Ba), silver (Ag), and mercury (Hg) in patients with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (n = 31), impaired glucose tolerance (n = 20), impaired fasting glucose (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 22). Plasma concentrations of the elements were measured by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results indicated that values of lead, nickel, aluminium, copper, and chromium were significantly higher, but not above toxic levels, in the plasma of nonsmoker patients with noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (P < 0.05). The values for these elements were found to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) in patients with impaired fasting glucose than in controls. Moreover, a statistically significant correlation was found between plasma levels of glycated hemoglobin and of some trace elements like lead, nickel, aluminium, copper, chromium, cadmium, and mercury. Thus, it was concluded that chronic complications of glucose metabolism disorders might be associated with alterations in the levels of some trace elements. Nevertheless, some more timely and extensive studies are required to clarify the exact mechanisms of each of these changes.International journal of diabetes in developing countries. 01/2009; 29(1):35-40.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between antioxidant nutrients (vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, selenium) and DNA methylation-related nutrients (folate, vitamins B6 and B12) and distal colorectal cancer risk in whites and African Americans and to examine intakes from food only versus total (food plus dietary supplements) intakes. Data are from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II, a case-control study of 945 distal colorectal cancer (including sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and rectum) cases and 959 controls. In-person interviews captured usual dietary intake and various covariates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). High intakes of each antioxidant and DNA methylation-related nutrient were significantly associated with lower risk in whites. In African Americans, the highest category of selenium from food only had a marginally significant inverse association with distal colorectal cancer risk (Q4 vs. Q1 OR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.02). Supplements did not provide additional risk reduction beyond intakes from food. Our findings provide evidence that antioxidant and DNA methylation-related nutrients may lower the risk of distal colorectal cancer in whites, and selenium may lower risk in African Americans. Optimal micronutrient intakes from food alone may be more beneficial than supplementation.Cancer Causes and Control 03/2010; 21(8):1171-81. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract We examined sodium selenite, an inorganic selenium supplement, for its ulcer healing properties and antimicrobial activity against gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using disk diffusion and flow cytometry. The studies were performed over a concentration range of 1 microg/ml to 500 microg/ml sodium selenite. Mild activity was seen at 10 microg/ml and 50 microg/ml, a moderate response at 100 microg/ml and strong response at 500 microg/ml with a MIC value of 10 microg/ml. The compound was found to be active at low pH without any resistance after 10 passages. Flow cytometry data showed a characteristic shift of the viability peak in comparison with the control, thereby confirming the bactericidal effects of sodium selenite. Sodium selenite administered in Wistar rats, pre-ulcerated with naproxen and infected with H. pylori, showed ulcer healing and anti-H. pylori activity at a concentration range of 10-50 microg/rat; however concentrations of 100 microg/rat and 500 microg/rat were found to be toxic in the in vivo studies. In conclusion, sodium selenite shows both ulcer healing and anti-H. pylori activity at a low concentration (10 microg/rat) without toxicity.Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 04/2010; 42(4):266-74. · 1.71 Impact Factor