Article

A comparison between ITS phylogenetic relationships and morphological species recognition within Mycena sect. Calodontes in Northern Europe

Mycological Progress (Impact Factor: 1.61). 01/2010; 9(3):395-405. DOI: 10.1007/s11557-009-0648-7

ABSTRACT The members of Mycena sect. Calodontes (Tricholomataceae s.l., Basidiomycota) are characterised by a collybioid aspect and more or less purplish to reddish colours
and a distinct raphanoid odour. In Europe, nine species have been recognised though some of these based on somewhat dubious
morphological differences. Historically, most were assigned to Mycena pura. However, since Mycena pura displays one of the most striking colour variabilities within European agarics, many attempts have been made to subdivide
it into independent entities, and several forms, varieties and species have been split from Mycena pura s.l. based largely on differences in colouration, gross macromorphology or other phenetic traits. We developed a large sample
of ITS sequences of all species of sect. Calodontes known from Europe for which vouchers exist. Furthermore, partial LSU data were developed and additional sequences downloaded
from GENBANK to assess the relationship of Calodontes with other Mycena spp. We show that most Calodontes form a monophyletic group including a few North and South American collections, but that this cannot be conclusively shown
when an additional North American sequence is added. For all other species than M. pura and M. diosma, we found morphological species recognition to be in agreement with the ITS data. Several significantly different clades
can be recognised within the M. pura morphospecies, none of which can be linked to the observed (and described by proxy) colour varieties/forms. Indications of
a possible environmental basis of the colour differentiation in the M. pura morphospecies are discussed.

KeywordsBasidiomycete phylogenetics-Morphological species recognition-Cryptic speciation

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    ABSTRACT: In Mycena sectio Calodontes with otherwise amyloid spores, the inamyloid spores of Mycena pearsoniana Dennis ex Singer were a distinguishing feature for this species and its subsection Violacella. Although the original concept of this species was European, Singer chose to typify it with material collected in Mexico. The name has since been applied to all European collections with inamyloid spores and decurrent lamellae. Our phylogenetic analysis of 91 ITS sequences from European, North and South American Calodontes collections shows that European collections identified as M. pearsoniana fall into two well-supported sibling clades together with both inamyloid and weakly amyloid North American collections. Since the holotype of M. pearsoniana is in an advanced state of decay, we have selected an epitype from a North American locality with a climate comparable to the Mexican type locality. Our results show weakly and inamyloid spore reactions to be homoplastic in Calodontes, and furthermore that spores of M. pearsoniana can show either amyloid or inamyloid reactions interchangeably. This raises doubt about the taxonomic value of this trait in Mycena systematics.
    Mycological Progress 11(3). · 1.61 Impact Factor

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May 27, 2014