Article

Phosphorus effects on root growth and development in two maize genotypes

South Dakota State University Plant Science Department 57007 Brookings SD USA
Plant and Soil (Impact Factor: 3.24). 12/1993; 158(1):39-46. DOI: 10.1007/BF00007915

ABSTRACT Soil phosphorus (P) availability is critical for the early growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.). Soil P also affects root morphological and physiological characteristics that are important for P uptake. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of P on seedling root growth and development of two maize genotypes differing in root system plasticity. Two maize genotypes, CM37 (high plasticity) and W153R (low plasticity), were selected based on a preliminary study. Maize plants were evaluated at six vegetative stages of development for three soil P treatments (0, 45, and 300 mg kg-1). Seedlings were grown in a controlled environment using a soil with low native P, Maddock sandy loam (sandy, mixed Udorthentic Haploborolls). The addition of P decreased the time to reach a given growth stage and increased the relative growth rate of roots to a greater degree in CM37 than in W153R. The effects of P on shoot dry weight and root surface area during the V4–V6 growth period appeared to be related to the effects of P on development and relative growth rates during the V1–V3 growth period. Evaluation of the time course of phenotypic change is an important consideration when developing adapted genotypes for specific environments.

1 Bookmark
 · 
242 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Phosphorus (P) is an essential element which plays several key roles in all living organisms. Setaria italica (foxtail millet) is a model species for panacoid grasses including several millet species widely grown in arid regions of Asia and Africa, and for the bioenergy crop switchgrass. The growth responses of S. italica to different levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and to colonisation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) were studied. Phosphate is taken up from the environment by the PHT1 family of plant phosphate transporters, which have been well characterized in several plant species. Bioinformatic analysis identified 12 members of the PHT1 gene family (SiPHT1;1-1;12) in S. italica, and RT and qPCR analysis showed that most of these transporters displayed specific expression patterns with respect to tissue, phosphate status and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation. SiPHT1;2 was found to be expressed in all tissues and in all growth conditions tested. In contrast, expression of SiPHT1;4 was induced in roots after 15 days growth in hydroponic medium of low Pi concentration. Expression of SiPHT1;8 and SiPHT1;9 in roots was selectively induced by colonisation with F. mosseae. SiPHT1;3 and SiPHT1;4 were found to be predominantly expressed in leaf and root tissues respectively. Several other transporters were expressed in shoots and leaves during growth in low Pi concentrations. This study will form the basis for the further characterization of these transporters, with the long term goal of improving the phosphate use efficiency of foxtail millet.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e108459. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Crop production in China has been greatly improved by increasing phosphorus (P) fertilizer input, but overuse of P by farmers has caused low use efficiency, increasing environmental risk and accumulation of P in soil. From 1980 to 2007, average 242 kg P ha−1 accumulated in soil, resulting in average soil Olsen P increasing from 7.4 to 24.7 mg kg−1. China is facing huge challenges to improve P use efficiency through optimizing corresponding technology and policies. The problem is exacerbated because people have been shifting their diet from plant-based to animal-enriched foods. This results in higher P load in the food chain and lower P use efficiency. Scope A multidisciplinary approach has been used to improve P management at the field and national level in China. Management strategies based on the soil and on the plant rhizosphere have been developed to increase efficient use of P. A national soil testing and fertilizer recommendation program has been used since 2005 to control build-up and maintenance of P levels. Interactions between root growth and the rhizosphere have been manipulated in intercropping systems and plant genetic traits have been exploited. Phosphorus surplus is highly associated with animal concentrated feed. Conclusions The P-saving potential by the integrated P management strategies of P flow reaches 1.46 Mt P in 2050 compared to 2005.
    Plant and Soil 01/2011; · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Phosphorous application effects were evaluated on ryegrass dry matter (DM) accumulation, root development and plant tissue concentration of phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon aiming to determinate the nutritional status of the pasture, as well as to verify the possibility to establish a phosphorus dilution curve for this pasture. Also, the development of phosphorus and ryegrass cultivated with the residual effect of phosphorus fertilization was determined. The experiment was carried out in Pinhais County – Paraná State on a Cambisol with very low phosphorus levels. The experiment was of random blocks design and treatments consisted of five phosphorus rates of triple superphosphate (0, 45, 90, 180 and 360 kg P2O5 ha-1) applied to soil surface with four replications. Phosphorus fertilization promoted linear increments in the soil phosphorus availability and resulted, in the first year, in early pasture production and higher phosphorus content in the plant. Nitrogen and carbon contents were not affected. Phosphorous application increased ryegrass DM accumulation in all periods, ranging from 16 to 2826 kg DM ha-1 at flowering stage, for zero and 360 kg P2O5 ha-1, respectively. Root density was positively influenced by phosphorus supply, and the rate of 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 was effective for maximum root development. The residual effect of phosphorus fertilizer provided enhancement of yield and phosphorus plant concentration for both sorghum and ryegrass in the second year.
    Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 05/2012; 41(5):1100-1109. · 0.56 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
120 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014