Status of essential trace metals in biological samples of diabetic mother and their neonates
ABSTRACT ObjectiveThere is accumulating facts that the metabolism of essential trace elements is altered in diabetic patients. The aim of present
study was to compare the status of essential trace elements, chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in biological samples
(whole blood, urine and scalp hair) of insulin dependent diabetic mothers (age ranged 30–40) and their newly born infants
(n=76). An age matched 68 non-diabetic mothers and their infants, residing in the same locality, were selected as referents.
For a comparative study, the biological samples of non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant and non pregnant of same age group and
socio-economics status were also analysed.
MethodologyThe biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) were collected from study and referent groups. The Cr, Mn and Zn concentrations
in all three biological samples were determined by a flame/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave
assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked by certified reference materials (CRMs)
and using conventional wet acid digestion method on same CRMs.
ResultsThe mean values of Cr, Mn and Zn in scalp hair and blood samples of diabetic mothers and their infants were significantly
lower as compared to the referent mothers-infants pairs (p<0.01), while urinary excretion of all these elements were high in diabetic mother–infant pair samples.
ConclusionThe deficiencies of essential trace elements, Cr, Mn and Zn in biological samples of diabetic women, may play role in the
pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and impacts on their neonates.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cord blood level of toxic and trace elements and to identify their determinants in Terai, Nepal. One hundred pregnant women were recruited from one hospital in Chitwan, Nepal in 2008. The cord blood levels of toxic [lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and cadmium (Cd)], essential trace elements [zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and copper (Cu)], demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were measured. The mean values of Pb, As, Cd, Zn, Se, and Cu in cord blood level were found as 31.7, 1.46, 0.39, 2,286, 175, and 667 μg/L, respectively. In the multivariate regression model, cord blood As levels from less educated mothers were higher than those from educated mothers (coefficient = -0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.02-0.00). The maternal age was positively associated with the cord blood Cd level (coefficient = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01-0.03), while it was negatively associated with the cord blood As level (coefficient = -0.01, 95% CI = -0.03--0.01). Cord blood levels of Pb, Zn, Se, and Cu were not associated with maternal age, socioeconomic status, living environment, and smoking status. As and Cd levels were relatively lower than those reported in previous studies in Asia, while the levels of Pb and the trace elements were similar. Less educated mothers are more likely to become a higher in utero As source to their fetus, and fetuses of older mothers were more likely to have higher in utero Cd exposure in Terai, Nepal.Biological trace element research 01/2012; 147(1-3):75-83. · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Zinc deficiency is known to be associated with insulin resistance in obese individuals. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese Korean women. Forty obese women (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) aged 19-28 years were recruited for this study. Twenty women of the study group took 30 mg/day of supplemental zinc as zinc gluconate for 8 weeks and 20 women of control group took placebo. Usual dietary zinc intake was estimated from 3-day diet records. Insulin resistances were measured using Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indices, and insulin sensitivities Matsuda indices, which were calculated using oral glucose tolerance test data. Metabolic risk factors, such as waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and adipocyte hormones such as leptin, and adiponectin were also measured. At the beginning of study, dietary zinc averaged 7.31 mg/day and serum zinc averaged 12.98 µmol/L in the study group. Zinc supplementation increased serum zinc by 15% and urinary zinc by 56% (P < 0.05). HOMA values tended to decrease and insulin sensitivity increased slightly in the study group, but not significantly so. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and adipocyte hormones did not change in either the study or control group. These results suggest that zinc status may not affect insulin resistance and metabolic risk factors in obese Korean women. Further research is required on a larger cohort with a longer follow-up to determine the effects of zinc status on insulin resistance and metabolic variables.Nutrition research and practice 06/2012; 6(3):221-5. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Few studies assessed effects of individual and multiple ions simultaneously on metabolic outcomes, due to methodological limitation. By combining advanced ionomics and mutual information, a quantifying measurement for mutual dependence between two random variables, we investigated associations of ion modules/networks with overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in 976 middle-aged Chinese men and women. Fasting plasma ions were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Significant ion modules were selected by mutual information to construct disease related ion networks. Plasma copper and phosphorus always ranked the first two among three specific ion networks associated with overweight/obesity, MetS and T2DM. Comparing the ranking of ion individually and in networks, three patterns were observed (1) "Individual ion," such as potassium and chrome, which tends to work alone; (2) "Module ion," such as iron in T2DM, which tends to act in modules/network; and (3) "Module-individual ion," such as copper in overweight/obesity, which seems to work equivalently in either way. In conclusion, by using the novel approach of the ionomics strategy and the information theory, we observed potential associations of ions individually or as modules/networks with metabolic disorders. Certainly, these findings need to be confirmed in future biological studies.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38845. · 3.73 Impact Factor