Measurements of soot volume fraction in pulsed diffusion flame by laser induced incandescence
ABSTRACT Laser induced incandescence (LII) is used in this study to measure soot volume fractions in steady and pulsed laminar diffusion
flame. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of flame pulsing on soot formation inside the flame region.
Phase-locked soot images were obtained for flame pulsing frequency between 10 and 200Hz. The phase-locked soot images revealed
the entire motion process of the soot field during one pulsation period. The results showed that the total soot volume fraction
in the flame region increased by 45% when the pulsing frequency was increased from 10 to 200Hz.
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ABSTRACT: Laser scattering/extinction tests on a coannular ethene diffusion flame were analyzed using cross sections for polydisperse aggregates. Using an improved experimental arrangement that allowed simultaneous measurement of light scattering at multiple angles, it was possible to determine the fractal dimension of the aggregates in the flame. The analysis also yields the mean-square radius of gyration, the aggregate number concentration, the average number of primary particles per aggregate, as well as the volume average of the volume-mean diameter as a function of height or residence time along the particle path of maximum soot concentration in this flame. These results lead to the conclusion that soot aerosol dynamic processes in the laminar ethene flame are partitioned into four regions. Low in the diffusion flame there is a region of particle inception that establishes the number of primary particles per unit volume that remains constant along a prescribed soot pathline. In the second region, there is sustained particle growth through the combined action of cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) accompanied by heterogeneous reactions contributing to monomer-cluster growth. Oxidation processes occur in the third region where CCA continues. If aggregate burnout is not complete in the oxidation region, then smoke is released to the surrounding in the fourth region where reactions cease but clusters continue to grow by CCA. The experiments yield the CCA growth rate within the flame which compares favorably with the theoretical value. The similarities and differences between this data reduction and the traditional analysis based on the use of cross sections for Rayleigh spheres and Mie theory spheres is discussed.Combustion and Flame 02/1993; 92(3-92):320-333. DOI:10.1016/0010-2180(93)90043-3 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The laminar flamelet concept views a turbulent diffusion flame as an ensemble of laminar diffusion flamelets. Work relevant to the flamelet concept is spread over various fields in the literature: laminar flame studies, asymptotic analysis, theory of turbulence and percolation theory. This review tries to gather and integrate this material in order to derive a self-consistent formulation. Under the assumption of equal diffusivities a coordinate-free formulation of the flamelet structure is given. This assumption is relaxed and flow dependent effects are considered. It is shown that the steady laminar counterflow diffusion flame exhibits a very similar scalar structure as unsteady distorted mixing layers in a turbulent flow field. Therefore the counterflow geometry is proposed to be the most representative steady flow field to study chemistry models and molecular transport effects in laminar flamelets. The conserved scalar model is interpreted as the most basic flamelet structure. Non-equilibrium calculations are reviewed.The coupling between non-equilibrium chemistry and turbulence is achieved by the statistical description of two parameters: the mixture fraction and the instantaneous scalar dissipation rate. The hypothesis of statistical independence of these two parameters is discussed. Calculation methods for the marginal distributions are reviewed. It is shown how local quenching of diffusion flamelets leads to a reduction of burnable flamelets. However, there are burnable flamelets in a turbulent flame which are not reached by an ignition source. This phenomenon is described by percolation theory. Complementary approaches related to local quenching effects and connectedness are combined to derive criteria for the stabilization of lifted flames and to blow out. Further applications of the flamelet concept are reviewed and work to be done is discussed.Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 01/1984; DOI:10.1016/0360-1285(84)90114-X · 16.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new method for the in situ optical determination of the soot-cluster monomer particle radius a, the number of monomers per cluster N, and the fractal dimension D is presented. The method makes use of a comparison of the volume-equivalent sphere radius determined from scattering-extinction measurements RSe and the radius of gyration Rg, which is determined from the optical structure factor. The combination of these data with the measured turbidity permits for a novel measurement of D. The parameters a and N are obtained from a graphical network-analysis scheme that compares R(se) and Rg. Corrections for cluster polydispersity are presented. The effects of uncertainty in various input parameters and assumptions are discussed. The method is illustrated by an application to data obtained from a premixed methane-oxygen flame, and reasonable values of a, N, andD are obtained.Applied Optics 10/1992; 31(30):6547-57. DOI:10.1364/AO.31.006547 · 1.69 Impact Factor