Article

Promoting root induction and growth of in vitro macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla L. ‘Keaau’) plantlets using CO2-enriched photoautotrophic conditions

Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture (Impact Factor: 2.61). 09/2011; 106(3):435-444. DOI: 10.1007/s11240-011-9940-8

ABSTRACT In this study, a rooting protocol was developed for macadamia plantlets with healthy roots and enhanced growth performance,
along with enhanced photosynthetic capability. In vitro-grown shoots rooted in vented vessels containing vermiculite as the
supporting material exhibited 100% frequency of root induction, whereas when shoots were grown in non-vented vessels containing
a solidified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, the frequency of root induction was less than 30%. The formation of root with
callus, hyperhydricity, and leaf necrosis was observed in this photomixotrophic closed system. The modification of the vented
photoautotrophic system with different concentrations of CO2 and sucrose were investigated using vermiculite as the supporter. The number of roots, root length, root surface area, fresh
weight, and dry weight were significantly higher in plantlets grown in CO2-enriched (1,000μmolCO2mol−1) photoautotrophic conditions. The water content in both root and shoot tissues of plantlets cultured under photoautotrophic
conditions was maximized. In addition, shoot and leaf performances were enhanced in plantlets cultured under CO2-enriched photoautotrophic conditions. The supplementation of sucrose (29–88mM) to culture media in both ambient and elevated
CO2 conditions affected a reduction in the shoot and root performance of in vitro plantlets. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and
total carotenoids in the leaf tissues of plantlets acclimatized in CO2-enriched photoautotrophic conditions were enriched, leading to increasing photosynthetic abilities, including chlorophyll
fluorescence and net photosynthetic rate. From this investigation, a root induction protocol was established and the production
of healthy macadamia plantlets was successfully implemented using CO2-enriched photoautotrophic conditions.

KeywordsEnriched CO2
–Net photosynthetic rate–Photoautotrophic conditions–Sucrose–Water content–Vermiculite

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