A self-consistent field of a charged micron-size particle placed in a rarefied ionized gas is created by both free ions moving
along infinite trajectories and trapped ions moving in closed orbits. The character of screening of the particle field is
analyzed under dynamic conditions in a nonequilibrium plasma where the temperature (or the mean energy) of electrons greatly
exceeds the ion temperature. Under these conditions, trapped ions are generated in a restricted region of the particle field
where the transitions between closed ion orbits resulting from resonant charge exchange dominate. This leads to a higher number
density of trapped ions compared to that of free ions. The parameters of the self-consistent field of the particle and ions
are found when free or trapped ions determine the screening of the particle field, and a similarity law is established for
a simultaneous variation of the number density of plasma particles and the particle size. In dusty plasmas of the Solar System,
which result from the interaction of the solar wind with dust, formation of trapped ions increases the plasma number density
compared to that in the solar wind.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Processes involving clusters and small particles are considered from the standpoint of interaction of clusters or small particles with atomic particles of a buffer gas. Two opposite interaction regimes are the kinetic (dynamic) and diffusion (hydrodynamic) ones, so that in the first case collisions of a gas atom with a cluster or small particle are analogous to collisions of two atomic particles in a gas, whereas in the diffusion regime a cluster or a small particle strongly interacts simultaneously with many atoms. Criteria and parameters of processes for the kinetic and diffusion regimes are given for transport phenomena in gases involving clusters or small particles, cluster charging in an ionized gas and particle combustion, and also nucleation processes including cluster growth as a result of atom attachment to a growing cluster, the coagulation and coalescence processes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is shown that various spectroscopic methods based on measurements of X-ray spectra radiated from cluster targets can be used for estimation of the destruction degree of clusters by laser prepulses. These methods allow insight to be gained regarding the important issue of preservation of the dense cluster core at the moment of the arrival of the main laser pulse. In addition, they can be used for quantitative estimation of the size of the undestroyed parts of the clusters and also for measuring the temperature and density of the preplasmas produced by the laser prepulses.
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