Application of Magnetron Sputtering for Producing Bioactive Ceramic Coatings on Implant Materials

Shandong University School of Mechanical Engineering Shandong Jinan 250061 P.R. China
Bulletin of Materials Science (Impact Factor: 1.02). 11/2008; 31(6):877-884. DOI: 10.1007/s12034-008-0140-z


Radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering is a versatile deposition technique that can produce thin, uniform, dense calcium
phosphate coatings. In this paper, principle and character of magnetron sputtering is introduced, and development of the hydroxyapatite
and its composite coatings application is reviewed. In addition, influence of heat treatment on magnetron sputtered coatings
is discussed. The heat treated coatings have been shown to exhibit bioactive behaviour both in vivo and in vitro. At last, the future application of the bioactive ceramic coating deposited by magnetron sputtering is mentioned.

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    • "RF Sputtering of Ca/P glasses including pyrophosphates and hydroxyapatite have been explored by a number of authors from as early as 1993. RF sputtering has been found to be an appropriate coating method, producing uniform , thin coatings, with superior adhesion strengths [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]. Yamashita et al. produced a range of binary Ca/P glass coatings with Ca:P ratios of 1.67, 1.0 and 1.5 via sputtering, which were subsequently crystallised by heating to form thin film apatites of hydroxyapatite, pyrophosphate and tri-calcium phosphate [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phosphate based glass (PBG) coatings of up to 2.6 μm thick have been applied by RF magnetron sputtering for their potential in promoting osseointegration and potential as ion delivery systems for biomaterials. The processing behaviour of PBG under ion bombardment have been investigated, notably the phenomena of preferential sputtering. The relative sputtering yields for the elements within quaternary and quinternary glass oxides have been found to be dependent upon the chemical bonding and momentum exchange interactions at the surface, subsurface layers of the target material. This led to preferential sputtering in the order, P < Fe < Ca < Mg < Na, based on the absolute changes from 6 target compositions to their respective coating compositions, showing a reduction in P2O5 and Fe2O3 of between 10.3-15.2, 0.2-0.6 mol% respectively and an increase in MgO, CaO, and Na2O of 4.8-6.0, 0.1-3.8, and 3.0-6.9 mol% respectively. The order primarily corresponded to the relative dissociation energies of the network modifying ions bound to oxygen of (818.0 or 1227.0 for Fe), 928.0 for Ca, 788.0 for Mg, and 257.0 kJ mol− 1 for Na. The deposition rates from targets T1-T6 varied between 1.59-1.93 nm min− 1 at a constant pressure of 1.05 Pa. Increasing the pressure from 0.28 to 1.87 Pa led to improved stoichiometric transfer from target to coating.
    Thin Solid Films 06/2015; 589. DOI:10.1016/j.tsf.2015.05.072 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    • "the same, has an open pore-like structure; a consequence of the competing anodising and acid solution processes [17] "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the fabrication and characterization of Al/Al2O3 nanotubular arrays on Ti-6Al-4V substrate were carried out. To this end, aluminum thin films were deposited as a first coating layer by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering with the coating conditions of 300 W, 150 °C and 75 V substrate bias voltage. Al2O3 nanotube array as a second layer was grown on the Al layer by electrochemical anodisation at the constant potential of 20 V within different time periods in a electrolyte solution. For annealing the coated substrate, plasma treatment (PT) was utilized under various conditions to get the best adhesion strength of coating to the substrate. To characterize the coating layers, micro scratch test, Vickers hardness and field emission of scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) were used. Results showed that after the deposition of pure aluminum on the substrate the scratch length, load and failure point were 794.37 μm, 1100 mN and 411.43 μm, respectively. After PT, the best adhesion strength (2038 mN) was obtained at RF power of 60 W. With the increase of the RF power from 60 to 80 W, a reduction in adhesion strength was observed (1525.22 mN). From the microstructural point of view, a homogenous porous structure with an average pore size of 40-60 nm was formed after the anodisation for 10-45 min. During PT, the porous structure was converted to dense alumina layer when the RF power rose from 40 to 80 W. This led to an increase in hardness value from 2.7 to 3.4 GPa. Based on the obtained data, the RF power of 60 W was the optimum condition for plasma treatment of Al/Al2O3 nanotubular arrays on Ti-6Al-4V substrate.
    Applied Surface Science 12/2014; 321. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.10.040 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Some of these methods have severe limitations such as poor adhesion, micro-crack formation, phase changes at high temperatures, non-uniformity, and improper microstructural control, all of which make them inadequate for implant systems (Raja et al., 2005; Kar et al., 2006). More recently, physical vapour deposition (PVD) magnetron sputtering has been suggested by many researchers as a versatile deposition technique that offers many advantages including high deposition rates, ease of sputtering any metal, alloy or compound, the formation of high-purity films, extremely high adhesion to films, and the ability to form dense coatings (Swann, 1988; Ding et al., 1999; Kelly and Arnell, 2000; Nelea et al., 2003; Shi et al., 2008; Toque et al., 2010). Throughout the last decades, pure titanium has been the most widely applied biomaterial among metals due to its fine biocompatibility, favourable mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance, and adequately strong load-bearing applications. "
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    ABSTRACT: With the intention of improving the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V, samples were first coated with pure titanium using the physical vapor deposition (PVD) magnetron sputtering technique. The Taguchi optimization method was used to attain a higher coating on substrate adhesion. Second, pure titanium-coated samples with higher adhesion were anodized to generate TiO2 nanotubes. Next, the TiO2-coated specimens were heat treated at annealing temperatures of 753.15 K and 923.15 K (480 °C and 650 °C). The XRD results indicate that the varying heat treatment temperatures produced different phases, namely, anatase [753.15 K (480 °C)] and rutile [923.15 K (650 °C)]. Finally, the coated samples’ mechanical properties (surface hardness, adhesion, and fretting fatigue life) were investigated. The fretting fatigue lives of TiO2-coated specimens at 753.15 K and 923.15 K (480 °C and 650 °C) annealing temperatures were significantly enhanced compared to uncoated samples at low and high cyclic fatigue. The results also indicate that TiO2-coated samples heat treated at an annealing temperature of 753.15 K (480 °C) (anatase phase) are more suitable for increasing fretting fatigue life at high cyclic fatigue (HCF), while at low cyclic fatigue, the annealing temperature of 923.15 K (650 °C) seemed to be more appropriate. The fretting fatigue life enhancement of thin-film TiO2 nanotubular array-coated Ti-6Al-4V is due to the ceramic nature of TiO2 which produces a hard surface as well as a lower coefficient of friction of the TiO2 nanotube surface that decreases the fretting between contacting components, namely, the sample and friction pad surfaces.
    Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 01/2014; 45A(2). DOI:10.1007/s11661-013-2043-x · 1.73 Impact Factor
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