Article

Emotion Regulation: Antecedents and Well-Being Outcomes of Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression in Cross-Cultural Samples

Journal of Happiness Studies (Impact Factor: 1.88). 01/2009; 10(3):271-291. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-007-9080-3

ABSTRACT Habitual emotional state is a predictor of long-term health and life expectancy and successful emotion regulation is necessary
for adaptive functioning. However, people are often unsuccessful in regulating their emotions. We investigated the use of
cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in 489 university students in Norway, Australia, and the United States and
how these strategies related to measures of well-being (affect, life satisfaction, and depressed mood). Data was collected
by means of selfadministered questionnaires. The major aims of the study were to begin to explore the prevalence of use of
cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression across gender, age and culture, possible antecedents of emotion regulation
strategies, and the influence of emotion regulation upon well-being. Results showed that the use of emotion regulation strategies
varied across age, gender and culture. Private self-consciousness (self-reflection and insight) was found to be a central
antecedent for the use of cognitive reappraisal. Use of emotion regulation strategies predicted well-being outcomes, also
after the effect of extraversion and neuroticism had been controlled for. Generally, increased use of cognitive reappraisal
predicted increased levels of positive well-being outcomes, while increased use of expressive suppression predicted increased
levels of negative well-being outcomes.

2 Bookmarks
 · 
151 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that being affectively unstable is an indicator of several forms of psychological maladjustment. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying affective instability. Our research aims to examine the possibility that being prone to extreme fluctuations in one's feelings is related to maladaptive emotion regulation. We investigated this hypothesis by relating affective instability, assessed in daily life using the experience sampling method, to self-reported emotion regulation strategies and to parasympathetically mediated heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological indicator of emotion regulation capacity. Results showed that HRV was negatively related to instability of positive affect (as measured by mean square successive differences), indicating that individuals with lower parasympathetic tone are emotionally less stable, particularly for positive affect.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e81536. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A widespread assumption in research and clinical practice is that cognitive reappraisal is a healthy and successful emotion regulation strategy, while expressive suppression is ineffective and has non-favourable consequences (e.g., decreased positive affect, higher physiological arousal). However, little is known about the consequences of reappraisal and expressive suppression for everyday affect. We investigated affective consequences of habitual reappraisal and expressive suppression in undergraduates (n=87), and sampled affect characteristics for 24h. Moreover, we quantified affective recovery from viewing an aversive video fragment. Habitual reappraisal was associated with lowered emotional arousal (but not valence), both in terms of diurnal affect levels and positive and negative responses to the emotional provocation task. This pattern contravenes the popular assumption that reappraisal has generally favourable consequences. Additionally, in contrast to the alleged non-favourable consequences of habitual expressive suppression, the current study failed to find a relation between expressive suppression, diurnal affect levels and affective recovery. This suggests that the detrimental effects of expressive suppression are limited in duration. Collectively, our results emphasise that the everyday consequences of emotion regulation for affect merits systematic research, for instance by using more naturalistic and prolonged interventions.
    Psychiatry Research 06/2012; · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The link between social anxiety (SA) and maladaptive emotion regulation has been clearly established, but little is known about the spontaneous regulation strategies that may be activated during social stress by negative involuntary mental images and whether the nature of such strategies might distinguish individuals with high vs. low trait SA. Participants with high (n = 33) or low (n = 33) trait SA performed an evaluative speech and reported whether they experienced an involuntary negative mental image during the task. They also rated their negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) and the extent to which they viewed their image as being controllable and malleable. Finally, they described the types of strategies they spontaneously used to try to control or change their image intrusions. Reported strategies were then subjected to a content analysis and categorized by blinded coders. Among high SA participants, image controllability was both diminished overall and positively correlated with PA. Whereas 90% of low SA individuals reported that they spontaneously self-regulated by altering the content or perceptual features of their images, only about half of the high SA participants used this strategy, with the other 50% reporting that they either suppressed their images or succumbed passively to them in whatever form they took. Although these initial findings require replication in future experimental studies on clinical samples, they also help to enrich our understanding of the strategies that are commonly used by high and low SA individuals to manage their image intrusions during in-vivo stress and suggest potential avenues for future research on the role of imagery in adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation.
    Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry 05/2013; 44(4):426-432. · 2.48 Impact Factor