Article

Emotion Regulation: Antecedents and Well-Being Outcomes of Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression in Cross-Cultural Samples

Journal of Happiness Studies (Impact Factor: 1.88). 06/2009; 10(3):271-291. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-007-9080-3

ABSTRACT Habitual emotional state is a predictor of long-term health and life expectancy and successful emotion regulation is necessary
for adaptive functioning. However, people are often unsuccessful in regulating their emotions. We investigated the use of
cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression in 489 university students in Norway, Australia, and the United States and
how these strategies related to measures of well-being (affect, life satisfaction, and depressed mood). Data was collected
by means of selfadministered questionnaires. The major aims of the study were to begin to explore the prevalence of use of
cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression across gender, age and culture, possible antecedents of emotion regulation
strategies, and the influence of emotion regulation upon well-being. Results showed that the use of emotion regulation strategies
varied across age, gender and culture. Private self-consciousness (self-reflection and insight) was found to be a central
antecedent for the use of cognitive reappraisal. Use of emotion regulation strategies predicted well-being outcomes, also
after the effect of extraversion and neuroticism had been controlled for. Generally, increased use of cognitive reappraisal
predicted increased levels of positive well-being outcomes, while increased use of expressive suppression predicted increased
levels of negative well-being outcomes.

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    • "However, the research results on specific ER strategies, such as suppression, are contradictory: ES is associated with a low level of satisfaction and wellbeing (John & Gross, 2004), whereas the behavioral modulation of the response through ES is associated with high levels of life satisfaction and positive moods (Schutte, Manes & Malouff, 2009). Cognitive reappraisal is positively correlated with wellbeing, life satisfaction, positive affects (independent effect of extraversion) and negatively with depressive mood and negative affects (Haga, 2009; Sheppes & Meiran, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: This research integrates three concepts (personality, family correlates and emotion regulation) in a predictive model of wellbeing. We measured the impact of the personality structure, the adult attachment style, the style for socializing internalizing and externalizing emotions and the emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression) on general wellbeing. A set of eight self-administered scales were filled up by 516 subjects, aged between 14 and 34 (M = 18.62; SD = 3.32). The results show that emotional stability predicts wellbeing on all four dimensions: positive affects, negative affects, emotional distress and life satisfaction. Emotion regulation strategies are predictors for (positive and negative) affects only, and not for emotional distress or life satisfaction.
    Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 12/2014; 159. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.346
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    • "Karademas (2007) found that positive reappraisal and problemfocused coping (including planning) predicted higher well-being, while distancing (e.g., trying to forget) predicted lower well-being. Finally, habitual use of cognitive reappraisal has been found to relate to the experience of less negative and more positive affect, as well as with greater life satisfaction and psychological well-being (Gross and John 2003; Haga et al. 2009; McRae et al. 2012). Overall, existing studies suggest that—just as some regulation strategies are more closely associated with emotional problems than others—regulatory strategies may be differently effective in promoting individual's well-being as well. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although research has extensively examined the link between cognitive emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms, scant attention has been given to the relationship between dispositional use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies and individuals’ positive functioning. In a cross-sectional study on 470 adults, we examined whether individual differences in the use of nine cognitive strategies were associated with subjective and psychological well-being. Results show that positive reappraisal and refocus on planning are positively related to both subjective and psychological well-being. Rumination, catastrophizing and self-blame are linked to poorer well-being, while positive refocusing, putting into perspective, and acceptance show few significant associations. These results suggest that cognitive emotion regulation strategies may be differently effective in promoting individual’s well-being.
    Journal of Happiness Studies 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10902-014-9587-3 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Downstream, suppression has been linked to myriad negative outcomes. For instance, suppression impairs memory processes (Dunn et al., 2009; Richards and Gross, 2000), predicts psychopathology (Haga et al., 2007; John and Gross, 2004; Moore et al., 2008), and elicits maladaptive physiological responses (Gross and Levenson, 1997; Gross, 1998; Hagemann et al., 2006) to name a few. Suppression also has negative social consequences, such as reducing access to social support resources, lowering " social satisfaction, " and harming relationships (Amirkhan et al., 1995; Srivastava et al., 2009; Von Dras and Siegler, 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: Engaging in emotional suppression typically has negative consequences. However, relatively little is known about response-focused emotion regulation processes in dyadic interactions. We hypothesized that interacting with suppressive partners would be more threatening than interacting with expressive partners. To test predictions, two participants independently watched a negatively-valenced video and then discussed their emotional responses. One participant (the regulator) was assigned to express/suppress affective signals during the interaction. Their partner was given no special instructions prior to the interaction. Engaging in suppression versus expression elicited physiological responses consistent with threat—sympathetic arousal and increased vasoconstriction—in anticipation of and during dyadic interactions. Partners of emotional suppressors also exhibited more threat responses during the interaction, but not before, compared to partners of emotional expressors. Partner and interaction appraisals mirrored physiological findings. Emotional suppressors found the task more uncomfortable and intense while their partners reported them as being poor communicators. This work broadens our understanding of connections between emotion regulation, physiological responses, and cognitive processes in dyads.
    International Journal of Psychophysiology 10/2014; 94(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.07.015 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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