Effect of supplementation with fortified olive oil on biochemical markers of bone turnover in healthy women

Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 10/2008; 1(2):117-120. DOI: 10.1007/s12349-008-0015-2

ABSTRACT Osteocalcin (OC) is a bone Gla protein synthesized by osteoblasts which have a high affinity for calcium. To adequately carboxylate
OC to form carboxylated OC (cOC), the osteoblasts require sufficient vitamin K. If vitamin K is deficient, under-carboxylated
OC (ucOC) is produced. The ratio between ucOC and cOC (UCR) as well as the levels of circulating ucOC are used as indicators
of the vitamin K status of bone. The aim of the present study was to compare the vitamin K status of bone by measuring the
plasma levels of ucOC and UCR in healthy adult women before and after 3 weeks of oral supplementation with 20 ml/day Petrini
Plus extra virgin olive oil. Petrini Plus is an organic olive oil enriched with vitamins D3, K1 and B6. Enrolled in the study were 15 healthy female volunteers (aged 25–40 years). Plasma levels of ucOC and cOC were measured
by ELISA. ucOC was found to be reduced and UCR was reduced by 44% after Petrini Plus olive oil supplementation. Petrini Plus
extra virgin olive oil might therefore be useful for bone protection as it was able to counteract bone loss in healthy volunteers.

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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is elevated in elderly women and is a powerful marker of the subsequent risk of hip fracture in elderly institutionalized women (J Clin Invest 1993; 91:1769). To investigate the relationship between bone mass and ucOC, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 98 elderly institutionalized women, 81.4 +/- 6.0 years old. ucOC was negatively correlated with BMD at all sites (r = -0.26 to -0.38, p < 0.001 to p < 0.0001), even after exclusion of the effect of age by partial correlation (for the femoral neck, r = -0.26, p < 0.01) and after controlling for serum parathyroid hormone. BMD was significantly lower at all sites of measurement in women with elevated ucOC (> 1.65 ng/ml, upper limit of the normal range in young women) than in those with normal ucOC (for the neck, 0.58 +/- 0.13 versus 0.43 +/- 0.13 g/cm2, p < 0.001). Similar results were obtained for ucOC expressed as the fraction of total OC (ucOC%). Multiple regression showed that ucOC has the highest predictive value for BMD when including age and body weight in the equation. In summary, our data indicate that serum ucOC is an independent determinant of BMD of the hip in elderly women. The mechanism by which serum ucOC is related to bone mass is unclear and should be addressed in further studies. However, our data suggest that ucOC level may be an interesting marker in the investigation of bone status in the elderly.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10/2009; 9(10):1591-5. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.5650091012 · 6.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin K is well known for its role in the synthesis of a number of blood coagulation factors. During recent years vitamin K-dependent proteins were discovered to be of vital importance for bone and vascular health. Recommendations for dietary vitamin K intake have been made on the basis of the hepatic requirements for the synthesis of blood coagulation factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that the requirements for other functions than blood coagulation may be higher. This paper is the result of a closed workshop (Paris, November 2002) in which a number of European vitamin K experts reviewed the available data and formulated their standpoint with respect to recommended dietary vitamin K intake and the use of vitamin K-containing supplements.
    European Journal of Nutrition 01/2005; 43(6):325-35. DOI:10.1007/s00394-004-0480-4 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin K is receiving more attention in relation to its role in bone metabolism. Vitamin K is a coenzyme for glutamate carboxylase, which mediates the conversion of glutamate to gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla). The gamma-carboxylation of the Gla proteins is essential for the proteins to attract Ca2+ and to incorporate these into hydroxyapatite crystals. The best known of the three known bone-related Gla proteins is osteocalcin (OC). Even though the exact role of OC is not known, a number of studies have shown that vitamin K insufficiency or high levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is associated with an increase in the concentration of circulating ucOC. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated that vitamin K insufficiency is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fractures. Vitamin K supplementation, on the other hand, has been shown to improve the bone turnover profile and decrease the level of circulating ucOC. Dietary recommendations are based on saturation of the coagulation system, and in most countries the dietary intake is sufficient to obtain the amount recommended. In relation to bone, requirements might be higher. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of the importance of vitamin K in relation to bone health in adult humans and thereby in the prevention of osteoporosis. Furthermore, I will shortly discuss the interaction with vitamin D and the paradox in relation to warfarin treatment.
    Vitamins & Hormones 02/2008; 78:393-416. DOI:10.1016/S0083-6729(07)00016-7 · 1.78 Impact Factor