Effect of supplementation with fortified olive oil on biochemical markers of bone turnover in healthy women

Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2008; 1(2):117-120. DOI: 10.1007/s12349-008-0015-2

ABSTRACT Osteocalcin (OC) is a bone Gla protein synthesized by osteoblasts which have a high affinity for calcium. To adequately carboxylate
OC to form carboxylated OC (cOC), the osteoblasts require sufficient vitamin K. If vitamin K is deficient, under-carboxylated
OC (ucOC) is produced. The ratio between ucOC and cOC (UCR) as well as the levels of circulating ucOC are used as indicators
of the vitamin K status of bone. The aim of the present study was to compare the vitamin K status of bone by measuring the
plasma levels of ucOC and UCR in healthy adult women before and after 3 weeks of oral supplementation with 20 ml/day Petrini
Plus extra virgin olive oil. Petrini Plus is an organic olive oil enriched with vitamins D3, K1 and B6. Enrolled in the study were 15 healthy female volunteers (aged 25–40 years). Plasma levels of ucOC and cOC were measured
by ELISA. ucOC was found to be reduced and UCR was reduced by 44% after Petrini Plus olive oil supplementation. Petrini Plus
extra virgin olive oil might therefore be useful for bone protection as it was able to counteract bone loss in healthy volunteers.

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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is elevated in elderly women and is a powerful marker of the subsequent risk of hip fracture in elderly institutionalized women (J Clin Invest 1993; 91:1769). To investigate the relationship between bone mass and ucOC, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) of the hip with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 98 elderly institutionalized women, 81.4 +/- 6.0 years old. ucOC was negatively correlated with BMD at all sites (r = -0.26 to -0.38, p < 0.001 to p < 0.0001), even after exclusion of the effect of age by partial correlation (for the femoral neck, r = -0.26, p < 0.01) and after controlling for serum parathyroid hormone. BMD was significantly lower at all sites of measurement in women with elevated ucOC (> 1.65 ng/ml, upper limit of the normal range in young women) than in those with normal ucOC (for the neck, 0.58 +/- 0.13 versus 0.43 +/- 0.13 g/cm2, p < 0.001). Similar results were obtained for ucOC expressed as the fraction of total OC (ucOC%). Multiple regression showed that ucOC has the highest predictive value for BMD when including age and body weight in the equation. In summary, our data indicate that serum ucOC is an independent determinant of BMD of the hip in elderly women. The mechanism by which serum ucOC is related to bone mass is unclear and should be addressed in further studies. However, our data suggest that ucOC level may be an interesting marker in the investigation of bone status in the elderly.
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11/1994; 9(10):1591-5. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin K is well known for its role in the synthesis of a number of blood coagulation factors. During recent years vitamin K-dependent proteins were discovered to be of vital importance for bone and vascular health. Recommendations for dietary vitamin K intake have been made on the basis of the hepatic requirements for the synthesis of blood coagulation factors. Accumulating evidence suggests that the requirements for other functions than blood coagulation may be higher. This paper is the result of a closed workshop (Paris, November 2002) in which a number of European vitamin K experts reviewed the available data and formulated their standpoint with respect to recommended dietary vitamin K intake and the use of vitamin K-containing supplements.
    European Journal of Nutrition 01/2005; 43(6):325-35. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased levels of circulating undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), measured indirectly with the hydroxyapatite (HAP) binding assay, have been shown to predict hip fracture risk in a small group of elderly institutionalized women. The aim of this study was to confirm these findings in a prospective cohort study (EPIDOS prospective study) of 7598 healthy, independently living women over 75 yr of age. One hundred and four women who sustained a hip fracture during a 22-month follow-up period were age matched with 255 controls who did not fracture. Baseline samples were collected before hip fracture for measurement of total OC and ucOC, assessed either with the HAP binding assay or directly with a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This direct ELISA uses human recombinant noncarboxylated OC as a standard and two monoclonal antibodies, one of which was raised against the 14-30 Glu synthetic peptide. We found that the intra- and interassay variations are less than 11%, and this assay exhibits a 5% cross-reactivity with purified human bone OC, used as a source of carboxylated OC. ucOC levels measured with this ELISA correlated well with the HAP binding assay in the population of 359 elderly women (r = 0.82; P < 0.0001). We estimated the risk of hip fracture for women with levels of ucOC in the highest quartile of values for the 255 controls. We found that increased levels of ucOC measured by ELISA were associated with increased hip fracture risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.0), and the ELISA had a greater sensitivity than the HAP assay. In contrast, total OC was not associated with hip fracture risk. After adjustment for femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and mobility status assessed by gait speed, ucOC still predicted hip fracture with an OR of 1.8 (1.0-3.0). Women with both femoral neck BMD in the lowest quartile and ucOC in the highest quartile were at higher risk of hip fracture, with an OR of 5.5 (2.7-11.2), than those with only low BMD or high ucOC levels. In conclusion, we have developed a new specific ELISA for serum ucOC, with low cross-reactivity with carboxylated OC and increased specificity and sensitivity over the HAP assay. Using this new ELISA, we found that ucOC, but not total OC, predicts hip fracture risk independently of femoral neck BMD in elderly women drawn from the general population. Thus, ucOC measurement could be combined with bone mass determination to improve the assessment of hip fracture risk in elderly women.
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