Antioxidant potentials of skin, pulp, and seed fractions of commercially important tomato cultivars
ABSTRACT The rationale of this study is to compare the levels of different antioxidants present in commercially important tomato cultivars
of India, specifically developed to grow in high altitude and plain regions. Major antioxidant components like lycopene, ascorbic
acid, phenolics, and quenching capacity of free radicals were analysed in different fractions of tomato fruit, i.e., skin,
pulp, and seed fractions. Significant differences in antioxidant components were observed among the fractions of the different
cultivars studied. Lycopene content was found to be more in high altitude cultivars (‘Sindhu’ and ‘Shalimar’); however, ascorbic
acid and phenolic content were found to be higher in plain region cultivars (‘PKM1’ and ‘CO3’). To evaluate the antioxidant
capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were performed. High altitude
cultivars showed 10–15% higher DPPH free radical scavenging activity and 20–30% increase in FRAP than the plain region cultivars.
Among the different fruit fractions analysed, skin showed the highest level of antioxidants levels and free radical scavenging
activities in all the cultivars tested. The difference in the antioxidants level and activity may be attributed to the genetic
variability of the cultivars.
Keywordstomato–skin–pulp–seed–antioxidant compound–antioxidant activity
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- "Early studies on chemical content of tomato tissues showed significant variation in peel and pulp fractions of tomato fruit (Chandra and Ramalingam, 2011; George et al., 2004). They found that peels had significantly higher phenolic contents than pulp. "
ABSTRACT: The vast majority of the tomato crop is harvested at mature green stage and ripened off of the plant for fresh market consumption. The other large amount of crop is harvested when the fruit has reached to fully mature red stage which is called “vine-ripened”. Here we attempt to answer and clarify if there is any difference between the antioxidant capacity of postharvest ripened and vine ripe tomatoes. Greenhouse grown tomatoes (cv. Newton) were harvested at four different ripening stages of unripe and vine ripe. Total phenolic (TP) contents and antioxidant capacity by the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assays were performed on all ripening stages. Results of the present study demonstrated that tomato peel has significantly higher TP content and antioxidant capacity than the pulp tissues in all maturity stages tested. TP and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits were affected during postharvest ripening process. If only pulp tissue considered, TAC of vine-ripened and postharvest ripened pink tomatoes has similar amount, but significantly higher content than mature green, breaker and turning maturity stages. If peel tissue measured, the mean separations identified three groups. Postharvest ripened mature green stage has the most TAC, followed by vine-ripened and pink stage. Postharvest breaker and turning stages have the least amount of TAC.Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology 08/2012; 53(4). DOI:10.1007/s13580-012-0001-y · 0.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant potential of phytochemicals present in 15 commercially important tomato genotypes specifically developed for growing in different geographical regions (high altitude and plain). Antioxidant components of tomatoes, namely lycopene, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, quenching capacity of free radicals, and titratable acidity were analyzed in skin, pulp and seed fractions of the tomato fruits. Results of our study revealed that the antioxidant potency of tomato fruit fractions were in the order of Skin>Pulp>Seeds. Lycopene, anthocyanin content and free radical quenching ability was higher in the high altitude cultivars, whereas total phenolics, ascorbic acid and titratable acidity were seen higher in the plain region cultivars. In general, the outcome of this study showed that, the high altitude cultivars (Sindhu and Shalimar) were superior in antioxidant capacities. In conclusion, with this study it could be established that genetic factors play an important role in determining the antioxidants level and activity of the tomato genotypes and hence it is very important to select the right genotype to get the maximum health benefit. Practical application: Phytochemicals present in the tomatoes are the major determinants of antioxidant potency of the fruits. To study the effect of genotype, it is necessary to grow the cultivars in ideal condition to assess the antioxidants level and activity, to select the right genotype for human consumption that gives better physiological benefit to the consumer.Journal of Food Science 10/2012; 77(11). DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02962.x · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The effect of peel and seed removal, two commonly practiced procedures either at home or by the processing industry, on the physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds contents and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits of four typical Portuguese cultivars (cereja, chucha, rama and redondo) were appraised. Both procedures caused significant nutritional and antioxidant activity losses in fruits of every cultivar. In general, peeling was more detrimental, since it caused a higher decrease in lycopene, b-carotene, ascorbic acid and phenolics contents (averages of 71%, 50%, 14%, and 32%, respectively) and significantly lowered the antioxidant capacity of the fruits (8% and 10%, using DPPH and b-carotene linoleate model assays, correspondingly). Although seeds removal favored the increase of both color and sweetness, some bioactive compounds (11% of carotenoids and 24% of phenolics) as well as antioxidant capacity (5%) were loss. The studied cultivars were differently influenced by these procedures. The fruits most affected by peeling were those from redondo cultivar (À66% lycopene, À44% b-carotene, À26% ascorbic acid and À38% phenolics). Seeds removal, in turn, was more injurious for cereja tomatoes (À10% lycopene, À38% b-carotene, À25% ascorbic acid and À63% phenolics). Comparatively with the remaining ones, the rama fruits were less affected by the trimming procedures.