Thirty-five yeast strains of the genusWilliopsis, analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction with the universal primer N21, were found to belong to two sibling species,W. saturnus andW. suaveolens. Such affiliation of the strains studied agrees well with the results of genetic and physiological investigations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using nine primer pairs, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was conducted to characterize industrial, laboratory and type strains of Saccharomyces sensu stricto. S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus, S. carlsbergensis and S. paradoxus had species-specific AFLP profiles, with some variations among the strains. Nineteen wine, ale, bakery, whisky and laboratory strains of S. cerevisiae were differentiated by two primer pairs, while out of 19 strains of sake yeast, two groups consisting of two and eight strains were not differentiated using nine primer pairs. A phenogram of 41 strains of S. cerevisiae, two strains of S. bayanus, the type strain of S. pastorianus, three strains of S. carlsbergensis, one hybrid strain of S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus and the type strain of S. paradoxus was obtained by the unweighted pair group method, using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) based on the percentage of shared AFLP fragments of each sample pair. This phenogram demonstrated clear separations of S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus, S. carlsbergensis and S. paradoxus. However, S. pastorianus ATCC 12752(T) showed the highest percentages of shared fragments with the strains of S. bayanus, and formed a cluster with them. Except for the type strain of S. pastorianus, the percentages of shared fragments showed a similar tendency with reported data of DNA relatedness. The cluster of S. cerevisiae separated into three subclusters: one consisting of sake and shochu strains and a whisky strain; another consisting of bakery, wine, ale and whisky strains; and a third consisting of laboratory strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces sensu stricto is a species complex that includes most of the yeast strains relevant in the fermentation industry as well as in basic science. The taxonomy of these yeasts has always been controversial, particularly at species level. Over the years, the grouping of Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts has undergone changes in accordance with the system employed in classifying yeast cultures. Names of species and single isolates have also undergone changes that have caused confusion for yeast scientists and fermentation technologists. Recent findings have demonstrated that Saccharomyces hayanus and S. pastorianus are not homogeneous and do not seem to be natural groups. The present work examines the current trends in systematics studies, evidences the importance and mechanism of genetic variation and explores the most recent evolutionary theories as a way to elucidate the mechanism of speciation and achieve a more natural grouping of Saccharomyces sensu stricto species.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 02/2003; 96(1):1-9. DOI:10.1016/S1389-1723(03)90089-2 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was applied to differentiate the sibling species Saccharomyces bayanus, S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus and S. pastorianus, which constitute the most common strains of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex. Six decamer primers of arbitrary sequences were used to amplify the DNA of 58 strains. Species-specific (diagnostic) bands were obtained for each species. Two phylogenetic trees constructed by the neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony methods clearly showed that the delimitation of these related yeast species is possible by using RAPD analysis. Four groups of strains, corresponding to the species S. bayanus, S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus and S. pastorianus, were obtained. Within the S. bayanus taxon, two groups of strains were observed. One includes the former type strain of S. uvarum, CECT1969(T), and closely related wine strains (S. bayanus var. uvarum), whilst the other contains S. bayanus type strain CECT1941(T) and strains CECT1991 and 10513 (S. bayanus var. bayanus). The heterogeneous S. paradoxus group was divided into three lineages, corresponding to different geographic origin, American, Japanese and European populations. In addition, due to the multilocus nature of the RAPD-PCR marker, this method is both useful and appropriate for the identification of the hybrid origin of S. pastorianus. The hybrid nature was deduced from the analysis of the fraction of bands shared by each hybrid strain and the parental species. Among the 58 strains analysed, six S. pastorianus strains were hybrids, although the fraction of genome coming from each parent varied depending on the strain.
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