Hydrocarbon generation potential of the uppermost Jurassic—basal Cretaceous Sulaiy formation, South Iraq

Arabian Journal of Geosciences (Impact Factor: 1.15). 02/2011; 4(1):53-58. DOI: 10.1007/s12517-009-0064-y

ABSTRACT Organic geochemical analysis, palynology, and PetroMod software for the organic matters of subsurface Tithonian to Valanginian Sulaiy formation of six wells in Basrah Region, South Iraq showed evidences for hydrocarbon generation potential. These analyses include quantitative studies such as pyrolysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and total organic carbon (TOC), while the qualitative studies are the textural microscopy used in evaluating amorphous organic matter for palynofacies analysis leading to hydrocarbon assessments. High TOC content of up to 7.3 wt.%, kerogen type II of mesoliptinic type with hydrogen index of up to 466 mg HC/g TOC, and mature organic matter along with dysoxic-anoxic environment and stratigraphic framework have rated the succession as a source rock for oil with ordinate gas, not only in Iraq but also in neighboring Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. This case study is also inferred for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion by PetroMod software which confirmed the source potential.

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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Thirty one crude oil samples from Lower Cretaceous reservoirs in southern Iraq were analyzed using bulk property and molecular methods to determine their maturity and biomarker characteristics, as well as to obtain information on their respective source rocks. All the oils are unaltered, non-biodegraded, have high sulfur content and API gravity is in the range for light to heavy oil (19–40° API). They are character-ized by low Pr/Ph values, even/odd predominance and front-end biased n-alkane distributions. Based on these parameters the oils were generated and expelled from a marine carbonate source rock bearing Type II-S kerogen. Compositional similarities of hopane and sterane biomarkers with those from potential source rocks allowed identification of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Sulaiy and Yamama carbon-ate succession as the effective source beds. A similar composition of normal and isoprenoid hydrocarbons among the oils suggests an origin from a common source rock. However, biomarker maturity ratios indi-cate a wide range of maturity. This appears to result from the type of burial history of the source rock, characterized by a slow passage through the liquid window interval during an extended period of geo-logic time.
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    ABSTRACT: The Binalud Mountains of NE Iran represent the easternmost extension of the Alborz Range. After the Mid-Cimmerian orogenic event and rapid subsidence, the deep marine sediments of the Dalichai Formation were deposited. A well-preserved section of the formation was sampled for palynological purposes. The study revealed diverse and nearly well-preserved dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. Thirty-six dinoflagellate cyst species identified lead to identification of four biozones: Cribroperidinium crispum (Late Bajocian), Dichadogonyaulax sellwoodii (Bathonian to Early Callovian), Ctenidodinium continuum (Early to Late Callovian), and Ctenidodinium tenellum (Early Oxfordian) biozones. The close similarities of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages between Binalud Mountains, NE Iran, with those of Alborz Mountains (Northern Iran) during Middle Jurassic confirm the connection between two sedimentary basins during this time in Iran. Meanwhile, this biozonation corresponds largely to that established in Northwest Europe and reveals the marine connection between NE and North of Iran with Northwest Europe and the Northwestern Tethys during the Late Bajocian to Early Oxfordian.
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