Effect of selected phytochemicals on cell proliferation in A549 lung cancer cells
ABSTRACT Effects of quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol, and curcumin on A549 lung cancer cell proliferation and the mechanism of these phytochemicals in
regulating apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were investigated. A549 cells were treated with quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol, or curcumin at 37°C for 96 hr and cell viability was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium
bromide (MTT) assay. Proteins related to apoptosis and cell cycle in A549 cells were quantified with Western blotting assay.
Quercetin 3-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol, and curcumin inhibited A549 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Quercetin 3-β-Dglucoside significantly decrease the expression level of CDK4 at concentrations of 5 mM and above (p<0.05). Curcumin lowered expression level of Bcl-2, CDK4, and cyclin D1 at concentrations of 100, 50, and above, and 50 mM
and above, respectively (p<0.05). These results suggest that phytochemicals, which can be found in a normal diet, inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation
and regulate the expression of the proteins involved in apoptosis and cell cycle.
Keywordslung cancer-A549 cell-quercetin 3-β-Dglucoside-resveratrol-curcumin
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ABSTRACT: Oxidants and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activate transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which is involved in the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, including interleukin-8 (IL-8). Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a naturally occurring flavonoid present in the spice turmeric, which has a long traditional use as a chemotherapeutic agent for many diseases. We hypothesize that curcumin may possess both antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties by increasing the glutathione levels and inhibiting oxidant- and cytokine-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 release from cultured alveolar epithelial cells (A549). Treatment of A549 cells with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 100 microM) and TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) significantly increased NF-kappaB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, as well as IL-8 release. Curcumin inhibited both H2O2- and TNF-alpha-mediated activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1, and IL-8 release. Furthermore, an increased level of GSH and glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit mRNA expression was observed in curcumin-treated cells as compared with untreated cells. Curcumin interacted directly with superoxide anion (O2*-) and hydroxyl radical (*OH) as shown by electron paramagnetic resonance, quenching the interaction of the radicals with the spin trap, Tempone-H. This suggests that curcumin has multiple properties: as an oxygen radical scavenger, antioxidant through modulation of glutathione levels, and antiinflammatory agent through inhibition of IL-8 release in lung cells.Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 01/2005; 7(1-2):32-41. · 7.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an anti-inflammatory agent used in traditional medicine, has been shown to suppress cellular transformation, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis through a mechanism not fully understood. Because several genes that mediate these processes are regulated by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), we have postulated that curcumin mediates its activity by modulating NF-kappaB activation. Indeed, our laboratory has shown previously that curcumin can suppress NF-kappaB activation induced by a variety of agents (J Biol Chem 270:24995-50000, 1995). In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which curcumin manifests its effect on NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression. Screening of 20 different analogs of curcumin showed that curcumin was the most potent analog in suppressing the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-kappaB activation. Curcumin inhibited TNF-induced NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin also suppressed NF-kappaB reporter activity induced by tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)1, TNFR2, NF-kappaB-inducing kinase, IkappaB kinase complex (IKK), and the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. Such TNF-induced NF-kappaB-regulated gene products involved in cellular proliferation [cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin D1, and c-myc], antiapoptosis [inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)1, IAP2, X-chromosome-linked IAP, Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), Bfl-1/A1, TNF receptor-associated factor 1, and cellular Fas-associated death domain protein-like interleukin-1beta-converting enzyme inhibitory protein-like inhibitory protein], and metastasis (vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) were also down-regulated by curcumin. COX-2 promoter activity induced by TNF was abrogated by curcumin. We found that curcumin suppressed TNF-induced nuclear translocation of p65, which corresponded with the sequential suppression of IkappaBalpha kinase activity, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and p65 acetylation. Curcumin also inhibited TNF-induced Akt activation and its association with IKK. Glutathione and dithiothreitol reversed the effect of curcumin on TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation. Overall, our results indicated that curcumin inhibits NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression through inhibition of IKK and Akt activation.Molecular Pharmacology 02/2006; 69(1):195-206. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer metastasis, involving multiple processes and various cytophysiological changes, is a primary cause of cancer death and may complicate the clinical management, even lead to death. Quercetin is a flavonoid and widely used as an antioxidant and recent studies have revealed its pleiotropic anticancer and antiproliferative capabilities. Gelatinases A and B (matrixmetalloproteinases 2 and 9) are enzymes known to involve in tumor invasion and metastases. In this study, we observed the precise involvement of quercetin role on these proteinases expression and activity. PC-3 cells were treated with quercetin at various concentrations (50 and 100 microM), for 24 h period and then subjected to western blot analysis to investigate the impact of quercetin on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) expressions. Conditioned medium and cell lysate of quercetin-treated PC-3 cells were subjected to western blot analysis for proteins expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Gelatin zymography was also performed in quercetin treated PC-3 cells. The results showed that quercetin treatment decreased the expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in dose-dependent manner. The level of pro-MMP-9 was found to be high in the 100 microM quercetin-treated cell lysate of PC-3 cells, suggesting inhibitory role of quercetin on pro-MMP-9 activation. Gelatin zymography study also showed the decreased activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in quercetin treated cells. Hence, we speculated that inhibition of metastasis-specific MMPs in cancer cells may be one of the targets for anticancer function of quercetin, and thus provides the molecular basis for the development of quercetin as a novel chemopreventive agent for metastatic prostate cancer.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 08/2006; 287(1-2):109-16. · 2.39 Impact Factor