„Nephro Update 2009“

Der Nephrologe 09/2009; 4(5):449-452. DOI: 10.1007/s11560-009-0320-x
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) substantially increases the risk of ischemic stroke, but this risk varies among individual patients with AF. Existing risk stratification schemes have limited predictive ability. Chronic kidney disease is a major cardiovascular risk factor, but whether it independently increases the risk for ischemic stroke in persons with AF is unknown. We examined how chronic kidney disease (reduced glomerular filtration rate or proteinuria) affects the risk of thromboembolism off anticoagulation in patients with AF. We estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation and proteinuria from urine dipstick results found in laboratory databases. Patient characteristics, warfarin use, and thromboembolic events were ascertained from clinical databases, with validation of thromboembolism by chart review. During 33,165 person-years off anticoagulation among 10,908 patients with AF, we observed 676 incident thromboembolic events. After adjustment for known risk factors for stroke and other confounders, proteinuria increased the risk of thromboembolism by 54% (relative risk, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.85), and there was a graded, increased risk of stroke associated with a progressively lower level of estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with a rate > or =60 mL x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2): relative risk of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.40) for estimated glomerular filtration rate of 45 to 59 mL x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2) and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.71) for estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 mL x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2) (P=0.0082 for trend). Chronic kidney disease increases the risk of thromboembolism in AF independently of other risk factors. Knowing the level of kidney function and the presence of proteinuria may improve risk stratification for decision making about the use of antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in AF.
    Circulation 04/2009; 119(10):1363-9. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.816082 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep apnea (SA) has been reported to be highly prevalent in the dialysis population. The reported rates of SA in dialysis are severalfold greater than the 2 to 4% estimated in the general population. This study sought to determine whether an association exists between SA and early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) where SA may represent an important comorbidity and potential risk factor in kidney disease. Cross-sectional study of adults from an integrated health plan with documented serum creatinine levels in the period January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2004. SA diagnosis determined by International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, coding for SA and Current Procedural Terminology coding for positive airway pressure devices. Kidney function was determined by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Logistic was regression used to estimate the relative risk for SA. The overall prevalence of SA was 2.5% in the study population that included subjects with normal renal function and those with CKD. The odds ratios (ORs) for SA by eGFRs of 75 to 89, 60 to 74, 45 to 59, 30 to 44, and 15 to 29 mL/min per 1.73 m(2), respectively, compared to normal kidney function, after adjustment for age, sex, and number of visits, were as follows: 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.25); 1.32 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.37); 1.42 (95% CI, 1.35 to 1.50); 1.37 (95% CI, 1.25 to 1.50); and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.55). The increased ORs for eGFRs > 45 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) were sustained even after controlling for diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. This study demonstrated an increased risk of SA in patients with early CKD. Further evidence of a causal relationship should be sought in the hope that the detection and management of SA may improve the course of CKD.
    Chest 12/2008; 135(3):710-6. DOI:10.1378/chest.08-2248 · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: S um m a r y The glomerular microvasculature is particularly susceptible to injury in thrombotic microangiopathy, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. We report the cases of six patients who were treated with bevacizumab, a humanized mono- clonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in whom glomeru- lar disease characteristic of thrombotic microangiopathy developed. To show that local reduction of VEGF within the kidney is sufficient to trigger the pathogenesis of thrombotic microangiopathy, we used conditional gene targeting to delete VEGF from renal podocytes in adult mice; this resulted in a profound thrombotic glomeru- lar injury. These observations provide evidence that glomerular injury in patients who are treated with bevacizumab is probably due to direct targeting of VEGF by anti- angiogenic therapy.
    New England Journal of Medicine 08/2008; 359(2):206; author reply 206-7. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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