Wenchuan 512 earthquake and giant panda habitat in Wolong, China: A review of strong earthquake effects
ABSTRACT In May 12, 2008, a strong earthquake occurred in Wenchuan County in the northern Sichuan Province of China. It registered
8.0 on the Richter scale with an 11-degree quake intensity, killing a large number of people, and causing extensive damage
to the local environment. Wolong National Nature Reserve is about 30 km away from the epicenter and is one of the most important
giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) habitats in China. Based on the impacts of the Wenchuan 512 earthquake and those of other strong earthquakes in the world,
this paper reviews and discusses effects of strong earthquakes on geomorphology, soil chemical and physical properties, forests,
bamboo growth, biodiversity, and giant panda habitat. This information may be useful for scientists when undertaking research
projects on natural geography, ecological restoration, and habitat restoration in the Reserve and the disaster area.
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ABSTRACT: Hydrogeochemical changes were detected by monitoring ice age meteoric waters before and after a magnitude (M) 5.8 earthquake on 16 September 2002 in the Tjörnes Fracture Zone, northern Iceland. Significant Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cr anomalies reached our sampling station 1, 2, 5, and >=10 weeks before the earthquake, respectively. By comparison with published experimental, geophysical, and geochemical studies, we suggest stress-induced source mixing and leakage of fluid from an external (hotter) basalt-hosted source reservoir, where fluid-rock interaction was more rapid. Rapid 12% 19% increases in the concentrations of B, Ca, K, Li, Mo, Na, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Cl, and SO4, and decreases in Na/Ca, delta18O, and deltaD, occurred 2 9 days after the earthquake. The rapidity of these changes is consistent with time scales of fault sealing due to coupled deformation and fluid flow. We interpret fluid-source switching in response to fault sealing and unsealing, with the newly tapped aquifer containing chemically and isotopically distinct ice age meteoric water. Variation in Na/Ca ratio appears to be sensitive to the changing stress state associated with M > 4 earthquakes. This study highlights the potential of hydrogeochemical change in earthquake-prediction studies.Geology. 01/2004; 32(8).
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ABSTRACT: Growth pattern and photosynthetic activity of different bamboo species (Phyllostachys viridi-glaucescens Rivière et C. Rivière, Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex Lehaie, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold et Zucc., and Bambusa ventricosa McClure) growing at the Botanical Garden of Rome were studied. Among the considered species, P. pubescens had the highest mean culm height (14.3±0.6m) and diameter (10.7±1.5cm), while B. ventricosa had the lowest mean culm height (6.0±0.2m) and internodes number (35±1). The highest net photosynthetic rates (NP) of the considered species were measured in early autumn, while the lowest ones in spring (30% of the maximum in the genus Phyllostachys), in the period of vegetative activity, and in winter (10% of the maximum in B. ventricosa). The correlation between NP and leaf temperature (LT) indicated that the favourable temperature enabling 50–100% of NP was in the range 2.2–32.1 and 16.2–36.3°C for the genus Phyllostachys and B. ventricosa, respectively. According to their origin, the species of the genus Phyllostachys, originating in a temperate climate had a higher sensibility to high air temperatures than B. ventricosa, originating in a tropical and subtropical climate, and having a lower sensibility to low air temperatures. Owing to the great potential for biomass production bamboos could be a significant net sink for CO2 carbon sequestration; nevertheless, by the highest whole culm photosynthetic rate (WNP=272±7.2μmolCO2s−1), calculated by the total leaf surface area per culm (28.6±1.1m2) and the mean maximum yearly assimilation rate (9.5±4.5μmolm−2s−1), P. pubescens contributed in major role to carbon sequestration (14±0.6kgCO2year−1 per culm) compared with the other considered species (on the average 3.0±1.6kgCO2year−1, mean value).Flora. 01/2008; 203(1):77-84.