Farmers’ attitudes about farming and the environment: A survey of conventional and organic farmers

Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics (Impact Factor: 1.3). 01/1996; 9(2):123-143. DOI: 10.1007/BF03055298

ABSTRACT Farmers have been characterized as people whose ties to the land have given them a deep awareness of natural cycles, appreciation
for natural beauty and sense of responsibility as stewards. At the same time, their relationship to the land has been characterized
as more utilitarian than that of others who are less directly dependent on its bounty. This paper explores this tension by
comparing the attitudes and beliefs of a group of conventional farmers to those of a group of organic farmers. It was found
that while both groups reject the idea that a farmer’s role is to conquer nature, organic farmers were significantly more
supportive of the notion that humans should live in harmony with nature. Organic farmers also reported a greater awareness
of and appreciation for nature in their relationship with the land. Both groups view independence as a main benefit of farming
and a lack of financial reward as its main drawback. Overall, conventional farmers report more stress in their lives although
they also view themselves in a caretaker role for the land more than do the organic farmers. In contrast, organic farmers
report more satisfaction with their lives, a greater concern for living ethically, and a stronger perception of community.
Finally, both groups are willing to have their rights limited (organic farmers somewhat more so) but they do not trust the
government to do so.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study describes the effect of bone formation by BMP-2 (bone morphogenetic protein-2), a bone formation inducer, with or without hydroxyapatite (HAP) application to critical-size defects in rat calvarial bone. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 5 animals each: control, HAP, BMP, and mixed BMP/HAP. A Critical-size defect of 4mm was made using a trephine in the calvarial bone and, after that, BMP and/or HAP was applied to the defect according to the grouping. Defects were evaluated radiographically and histologically using ImageJ color analyzer software at 4 weeks postoperatively. The histological data were more precise than the radiologic data due to the white color of the porous-type HAP material. The highest radiopacity was noted in the mixed BMP/HAP group (162.07±9.06), followed by the HAP group (133.15±21.8), then the BMP group (100.79±8.27), and, lastly, the control group (54.45±8.39). After subtracting the white background and using ImageJ for histological analysis, the highest rate of osteochondrogenesis was in the mixed BMP/HAP group (85.29%±8.21), and then the BMP group (77.34%±7.39), followed by the HAP group (59.82%±11.23), and, lastly, the control group (40.27%±7.44). Differences in the values between groups were then analyzed using confidence intervals (CI) of 95 and 99%. Within 4 weeks, the mixed BMP/HAP group showed the highest level of bone induction, especially compared to the BMP group, but this was non-significant; even with a 95% CI, the result was negative. This reveals that BMP alone can be applied, with a final result the same as that seen in the mixed BMP/HAP group. BMP and HAP, both being osteoinducting agents, even though they differ from a material classification point of view, have a positive effect on osteogenesis.
    Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 07/2011; 40(3):287-91. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Land Use Policy 07/2013; 35:318-328. · 2.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture, pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests). The impact of these practices constitutes a series of complex factors involving local issues, creating a need for further scientific studies on the social-environmental dynamics of natural resource use. Through participatory methods, the present study analyzed people’s representations about local environmental change processes in the Brazilian semi-arid region, taking into consideration local production systems, natural resources, and their importance. Environmental historical graphs were developed with nine local families to analyze landscape changes with regard to cultivated areas and pastures, and their relationship with the availability of native vegetation. Punctuation exercises were performed to observe the importance of each unit that supplied native and cultivated resources. The availability of native resources in the environment is subject to stability, as observed by a majority of the local families. The role of the production units (crops and pastures) was emphasized by most families in the study, especially because of the need for products for subsistence needs and income generation. The current decline of such practices is a consequence of an exodus of field workers and also relates to the conservation of native species that otherwise would have been deforested in favor of agricultural practices. KeywordsParticipatory methods–Ethnoecology–Human ecology–Environmental perception
    Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 01/2011; 24(5):511-531. · 1.30 Impact Factor


Available from
May 28, 2014