Microwave-induced organic reaction enhancement (more) chemistry: Techniques for rapid, safe and inexpensive synthesis
ABSTRACT Synthetic organic reactions have been conducted under microwave irradiation in open vessels in unaltered domestic microwave
ovens. Reaction times vary from a few seconds for sub-milligram reactions to about 15 minutes for reactions carried out on
a scale of hundreds of grams. Promising results have been obtained for several condensations, as well as the Bischler-Napieralski
reaction, the Wolff-Kishner reduction, free radical dehalogenation reactions, and other standard synthetic operations. Rapid
catalytic transfer hydrogenation using ammonium formate as the source of hydrogen has been conducted at about 100-130 °C under
Meaningful, safe and inexpensive synthetic experiments for undergraduate and pre-college students have been developed and
tested. The MORE chemistry techniques make it possible to use simple apparatus and very short reaction times.
Commercial microwave ovens are now essential equipment in our research and teaching laboratories [1-3]. These ovens are relatively
inexpensive, easy to move from one laboratory and set up in another, and safe to operate. Glass, plastics, and ceramics are
essentially transparent to microwaves whereas many organic compounds are dipolar in nature and absorb microwave energy readily.
We have found that untraditional experimental arrangements are possible for conducting a wide variety of organic reactions
in open vessels inside domestic microwave ovens. Depending on the quantity of reactants, most reactions (on a scale of milligrams
to several grams) can be completed in minutes instead of hours. One important element of our “Microwave-induced Organic Reaction
Enhancement” (MORE) chemistry is the proper choice of a microwave energy transfer agent as the reaction medium.
- SourceAvailable from: Hatem Abdel-Aziz[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A facile and efficient method for synthesis of fenamic acid hydrazides from their acids in one-step reaction under microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions was developed. Compared with the two-step conventional heating method, the process was simple, the reaction time was very short and the yields were almost quantitative.Molecules 01/2011; 16(5):3544-51. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A combinatorial library composed of eleven hydrazides A-K and eleven indolin-1,2-dione derivatives 1-11 has been designed to formally generate sublibraries of 22 mixtures, M(1)-M(22) comprising of 121 Schiff bases, A-K(1-11). The designed library has been synthesized by the solution-phase method and microwave-assisted synthetic techniques. The formation of individual compounds of each mixture was confirmed by Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) as ionization technique connected to an Ion Trap as a mass detector. The synthesized mixtures were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity against four Mycobacterium strains; M. intercellulari, M. xenopi, M. cheleneoi and M. smegmatis. Variable antimycobacterial activity was revealed with the investigated mixtures and maximum activity was shown by M(8), M(10), M(11), and M(15) with MIC values of 1.5, 3.1, 6.2 and 0.09 μg/mL, respectively. Application of the indexed method of analysis on these active mixtures revealed that compounds D(8), D(10) and D(11) may contribute to the activity of the tested mixtures.Molecules 01/2011; 16(6):5194-206. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This Feature Article gives an overview of microwave-assisted liquid phase routes to inorganic nanomaterials. Whereas microwave chemistry is a well-established technique in organic synthesis, its use in inorganic nanomaterials' synthesis is still at the beginning and far away from having reached its full potential. However, the rapidly growing number of publications in this field suggests that microwave chemistry will play an outstanding role in the broad field of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. This article is not meant to give an exhaustive overview of all nanomaterials synthesized by the microwave technique, but to discuss the new opportunities that arise as a result of the unique features of microwave chemistry. Principles, advantages and limitations of microwave chemistry are introduced, its application in the synthesis of different classes of functional nanomaterials is discussed, and finally expected benefits for nanomaterials' synthesis are elaborated.Nanoscale 08/2010; 2(8):1358-74. · 6.23 Impact Factor