Emerging Conceptual Models of Excessive Behaviors

University of Hawaii-Manoa Department of Psychiatry, John Burns School of Medicine Honolulu USA
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (Impact Factor: 0.99). 05/2007; 5(2):107-116. DOI: 10.1007/s11469-007-9060-1


The clinical assessment of a common behavior that disrupts a person’s life only when it becomes excessive is controversial.
The inclusion of pathological gambling in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Third Edition (DSM-III) in 1980 was one of
the initial formal attempts to develop diagnostic criteria for this type of behavior. The diagnostic criteria for pathological
gambling were based on substance dependency, but the disorder was classified as an impulse control disorder. One attempt to
resolve the controversy has been the development of a general psychological model of addiction that includes both substance
related behaviors and excessive behaviors. An example is the Griffiths component model that describes salience, mood modification,
tolerance, withdrawal, conflict and relapse as the central features of addiction. An addictive disorders section including
excessive behaviors and substance use disorders is one of the proposals for the DSM-V, scheduled to be published in 2012.

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    ABSTRACT: Behavior-based addictions are widely researched phenomena, though they are not included in the DSM-IV-TR (2000) with their substance-based counterparts. Exercise dependence is one such behavioral addiction that has garnered a lot of interest, yet is still poorly understood. The goal of the current study was to contribute to the understanding of exercise dependence by examining its latent structure. A community sample of 577 exercisers completed the Exercise Dependence Scale, Revised (EDS-R; Hausenblas and Downs, 2002b). The seven subscales of the EDS-R were used as indicators of exercise dependence in two taxometric analyses, MAMBAC and MAXEIG. Results of these analyses consistently indicated that the latent structure of exercise dependence is dimensional in nature, suggesting that exercise dependence represents an extreme on the full spectrum of all exercise behavior.