Relationship between specific leaf area, leaf thickness, leaf water content and SPAD-502 readings in six Amazonian tree species

Photosynthetica (Impact Factor: 1.41). 06/2009; 47(2):184-190. DOI: 10.1007/s11099-009-0031-6


The aim of this work was to assess the effect of leaf thickness, leaf succulence (LS), specific leaf area (SLA), specific leaf mass (Ws) and leaf water content (LWC) on chlorophyll (Chl) meter values in six Amazonian tree species (Carapa guianensis, Ceiba pentandra, Cynometra spruceana, Pithecolobium inaequale, Scleronema micranthum and Swietenia macrophylla). We also tested the accuracy of a general calibration equation to convert Minolta Chl meter (SPAD-502) readings into absolute Chl content. On average, SPAD values (x) increased with fresh leaf thickness (FLT [μm] = 153.9 +
0.98 x, r
2 = 0.06**), dry leaf thickness (DLT [μm] = 49.50 + 1.28 x, r
2 = 0.16**), specific leaf mass (Ws [g (DM) m−2] = 6.73 + 1.31 x, r
2 = 0.43**), and leaf succulence (LS [g(FM)] m−2 = 94.2 + 1.58 x, r
2 = 0.19**). However, a negative relationship was found between SPAD values and either specific leaf area [SLA (m2 kg−1) = 35.1 − 0.37 x, r
2 = 0.38**] or the leaf water content (LWC [%]= 80.0 − 0.42 x, r
2 = 0.58**). Leaf Chl contents predicted by the general calibration equation significantly differed (p<0.01) from those estimated by species-specific calibration equations. We conclude that to improve the accuracy of the SPAD-502 leaf thickness and LWC should be taken into account when calibration equations are to be obtained to convert SPAD values
into absolute Chl content.

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    • "The decrease in CCI by the salt treatments might be the result of depletion of chlorophyll by the salt treatment due to the enhanced activity of the enzyme chlorophyllase (Ghassemi-Golezani and Taifeh-Noori 2011). Decrease in CCI by salt stress has reported in different crops (Santos 2004, Jamil et al. 2007, Marenco et al. 2009, Amjad et al. 2014a) including quinoa (Adolf et al. 2012). Photochemical efficiency of PSII measured by chlorophyll fluorescence, Fv/Fm (variable/maximum fluorescence), was not affected by salt treatments consistent with other reports on quinoa (Bosque et al. 2003, Hariadi et al. 2011, Adolf et al. 2012) and on other crops (Jamil et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidants play an important role in adapting plants to abiotic stress by detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS). Involvement of antioxidant enzymes in abiotic stress tolerance of highly stress tolerant quinoa was studied in a climatic chamber at 6 mOsm (milliosmolar) ionic (300 mM NaCl) and non-ionic (600 mM mannitol) salts combined with increasing levels of potassium K1, K2 (6, 12 mM) respectively. Fifteen days of salt treatment (both ionic and non-ionic) decreased plant growth (shoot and root fresh weight), stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content index (CCI). Furthermore, both forms of salt stress increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POX) up to 2.33, 3.98, 4.78 and 5.55 folds respectively compared to no salt treatment. Whereas membrane stability index (MSI) decreased corresponding to increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA), with salt treatments compared to non-stressed plants. However, no significant effect of potassium and salt treatments has been noticed on the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII. The results suggested that enhanced antioxidant enzymes activity under salt stress could be one of the factors responsible for abiotic stress tolerance in quinoa.
    Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 06/2015; 10.1111/jac.12140. DOI:10.1111/jac.12140 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    • "Previous studies reported strong relationships between SPAD measurements and total extracted Chla + b per area when leaves varied in nutrient composition, thickness and surface features (Marquard & Tipton, 1987; Singha & Townsend, 1989; Fanizza et al., 1991; Manetas et al., 1998). Furthermore, when multiple species have been compared, the majority tended to have similar relationships (Marquard & Tipton, 1987; Gratani, 1992; Markwell et al., 1995; Castelli et al., 1996; Uddling et al., 2007; Marenco et al., 2009), suggesting that SPAD measurements can be considered as a proxy for extractable chlorophyll. Chlorophyll concentration per mass (Chl m ) was determined as Chla divided by LMA. "
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    ABSTRACT: * Cycads are the most ancient lineage of living seed plants, but the design of their leaves has received little study. We tested whether cycad leaves are governed by the same fundamental design principles previously established for ferns, conifers and angiosperms, and characterized the uniqueness of this relict lineage in foliar trait relationships. * Leaf structure, photosynthesis, hydraulics and nutrient composition were studied in 33 cycad species from nine genera and three families growing in two botanical gardens. * Cycads varied greatly in leaf structure and physiology. Similarly to other lineages, light-saturated photosynthetic rate per mass (Am) was related negatively to leaf mass per area and positively to foliar concentrations of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N), phosphorus and iron, but unlike angiosperms, leaf photosynthetic rate was not associated with leaf hydraulic conductance. Cycads had lower photosynthetic N use efficiency and higher photosynthetic performance relative to hydraulic capacity compared with other lineages. * These findings extend the relationships shown for foliar traits in angiosperms to the cycads. This functional convergence supports the modern synthetic understanding of leaf design, with common constraints operating across lineages, even as they highlight exceptional aspects of the biology of this key relict lineage.
    New Phytologist 01/2015; 206(2):n/a-n/a. DOI:10.1111/nph.13274 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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    • "CCM-200 has been successfully used to assess both chlorophyll and nitrogen content for many crop species (Richardson et al., 2002; van den Berg and Perkins, 2004). Although chlorophyll meters are cheaper and faster than the chemical method, they need field references, which can be obtained from a laborious field leaf measurement (Confalonieri et al., 2006) and they are affected by leaf anatomical characteristics as shown by Marenco et al. (2009) such as leaf thickness, flatness of the leaf, and leaf veins (Uddling et al., 2007). Additionally, the high cost of the SPAD chlorophyll meter keeps it out of reach of many Asian farmers (Singh et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Concerns over the use of nitrogen have been increasing due to the high cost of fertilizers and environmental pollution caused by excess nitrogen applications in paddy fields. Several methods are available to assess the amount of nitrogen in crops. However, they are either expensive, time consuming, inaccurate and/or require specialists to operate the tools. Researchers have recently suggested remote sensing of chlorophyll content in crop canopies as a low-cost alternative to determine plant nitrogen status. This paper describes the most recent technologies and the suitability of different remote sensing platforms for determining the status of chlorophyll content and nitrogen in crops. Finally, the role of vegetation indices in nutrient assessment is explained. Among different remote sensing platforms, a low altitude remote sensing system using digital cameras, which record data in visible bands can be used to determine the status of nitrogen and chlorophyll content. However, the vegetation indices need to be correctly chosen for best results.
    Applied engineering in agriculture 09/2014; 30(4):657-669. DOI:10.13031/aea.30.10478 · 0.41 Impact Factor
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