Arabidopsis thaliana J-class heat shock proteins: cellular stress sensors
ABSTRACT Plants are sessile organisms that have evolved a variety of mechanisms to maintain their cellular homeostasis under stressful
environmental conditions. Survival of plants under abiotic stress conditions requires specialized group of heat shock protein
machinery, belonging to Hsp70:J-protein family. These heat shock proteins are most ubiquitous types of chaperone machineries
involved in diverse cellular processes including protein folding, translocation across cell membranes, and protein degradation.
They play a crucial role in maintaining the protein homeostasis by reestablishing functional native conformations under environmental
stress conditions, thus providing protection to the cell. J-proteins are co-chaperones of Hsp70 machine, which play a critical
role by stimulating Hsp70s ATPase activity, thereby stabilizing its interaction with client proteins. Using genome-wide analysis
of Arabidopsis thaliana, here we have outlined identification and systematic classification of J-protein co-chaperones which are key regulators of
Hsp70s function. In comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system, a comprehensive domain structural organization, cellular localization, and functional diversity of A. thaliana J-proteins have also been summarized.
Article: Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery), has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV). Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock), symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. RESULTS: Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock) and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the recovery process. Genes orthologous to the C. annuum proteins involved in the pepper-PepGMV recovery response were identified in both Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum suggesting conservation of components of the viral recovery response in the Solanaceae. CONCLUSION: These data provide a valuable source of information for improving our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms by which pepper leaves become symptomless following infection with geminiviruses. The identification of orthologs for the majority of genes differentially expressed in recovered tissues in two major solanaceous crop species provides the basis for future comparative analyses of the viral recovery process across related taxa.Virology Journal 11/2012; 9(1):295. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plant heat shock protein Hsp70 is the major target of HopI1, a virulence effector of pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae. Hsp70 is essential for the virulence function of HopI1. HopI1 directly binds Hsp70 through its C-terminal J domain and stimulates Hsp70 ATP hydrolysis activity in vitro. In plants, HopI1 forms large complexes in association with Hsp70 and induces and recruits cytosolic Hsp70 to chloroplasts, the site of HopI1 localization. Deletion of a central P/Q-rich repeat region disrupts HopI1 virulence but not Hsp70 interactions or association with chloroplasts. Thus, HopI1 must not only bind Hsp70 through its J domain, but likely actively affects Hsp70 activity and/or specificity. At high temperature, HopI1 is dispensable for P. syringae pathogenicity, unless excess Hsp70 is provided. A working hypothesis is that Hsp70 has a defense-promoting activity(s) that HopI1 or high temperature can subvert. Enhanced susceptibility of Hsp70-depleted plants to nonpathogenic strains of P. syringae supports a defense-promoting role for Hsp70.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2010; 107(29):13177-82. · 9.68 Impact Factor