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    ABSTRACT: Past work has documented and described major patterns of adaptive and maladaptive behavior: the mastery-oriented and the helpless patterns. In this article, we present a research-based model that accounts for these patterns in terms of underlying psychological processes. The model specifies how individuals' implicit theories orient them toward particular goals and how these goals set up the different patterns. Indeed, we show how each feature (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) of the adaptive and maladaptive patterns can be seen to follow directly from different goals. We then examine the generality of the model and use it to illuminate phenomena in a wide variety of domains. Finally, we place the model in its broadest context and examine its implications for our understanding of motivational and personality processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological Review 03/1988; 95(2):256-273. · 9.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Describes how motivational processes influence a child's acquisition, transfer, and use of knowledge and skills. Recent research within the social-cognitive framework illustrates adaptive and maladaptive motivational patterns, and a research-based model of motivational processes is presented that shows how the particular performance or learning goals children pursue on cognitive tasks shape their reactions to success and failure and influence the quality of their cognitive performance. Implications for practice and the design of interventions to change maladaptive motivational processes are outlined. It is suggested that motivational patterns may contribute to gender differences in mathematics achievement and that empirically based interventions may prevent current achievement discrepancies and provide a basis for more effective socialization. (79 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    American Psychologist 09/1986; 41(10):1040-1048. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research in the area of learning strategies and styles of university students has led to many studies as well as to the development of many research tools for measuring learning, but without the necessary interrelationships among the tools or within the research. The aim of this study has been to examine the interdependence among the best-known tools coming from different theoretical bases. A sample of 991 university students in their first and last years, from ten different disciplines, completed four tests: ILP, LASSI, ASI and LSQ. The scales of each test, taken as the unit of analysis, were submitted to a factor analysis by the principal-components and the principal-factors methods. The latter method revealed an overarching structure composed of the following four factors: Traditional Study Methods; Deep Processing; Elaborative Processing; and General Learning Styles. These relationships confirmed the existence of three dimensions, or paths involved in learning, with clear motivational and approach elements, and also showed a separation between Deep Processing and the Deep Approach. Finally, we carried out principal-factor analyses of ASI and LASSI, obtaining two factors for each inventory.La recherche dans le domaine de stratgies et des styles d'apprentissage chez les tudiants universitaires abouti de nombreuses tudes et a developp divers instruments de mesures d'apprentissage, mais san ce rapport indispensable entre tudes et entre instruments. Le but de cette recherche a t d'examiner l'interdepndence entre les instruments les plus connus provenants de diffrentes thories.Un echantillonage de 991 tudiants universitaires de premire anne, de dix disciplines diffrentes ont repondu 4 tests: ILP, LASSI, ASI et LSQ. Les chelles de chaque test, prises comme unit d'analyse ont t soumises une analyse factorielle d'aprs les mthodes de composantes principales et de facteurs principaux. Celle-ci revle una structure commune compose des 4 facteurs suivants: Mthodes d'tude traditionelles, Traitement profond, Traitement laboratif et Styles gnriques d'apprentissage. Les rapports entre aux confirment l'existence de trois dimensions, impliques dans l'apprentissage, avec des lments de motivations et d'approches; et ils montrent aussi une sparation entre le Traitement profond et l'Approche profonde. Finalement, nous avons ralis une analyse factorielle d'aprs le mthode de facteurs principaux pour les tests ASI et LASSI, obtenant deux facteurs pour chacun des ces tests.
    Higher Education 01/1994; 27(2):239-260. · 1.06 Impact Factor

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