Article

Homelessness and CKD: a cohort study.

Kidney Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 5.07). 06/2012; 7(7):1094-102. DOI: 10.2215/CJN.00060112
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study examined the associations between homelessness and clinical outcomes of CKD among adults from the urban healthcare safety net.
This retrospective cohort study examined 15,343 adults with CKD stages 3-5 who received ambulatory care during 1996-2005 from the Community Health Network of San Francisco. Main outcome measures were time to ESRD or death and frequency of emergency department visits and hospitalizations.
Overall, 858 persons (6%) with CKD stages 3-5 were homeless. Homeless adults were younger, were disproportionately male and uninsured, and suffered from far higher rates of depression and substance abuse compared with adults with stable housing (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Over a median follow-up of 2.8 years (interquartile range=1.4-6.1), homeless adults experienced significantly higher crude risk of ESRD or death (hazard ratio=1.82, 95% confidence interval=1.49-2.22) compared with housed adults. This elevated risk was attenuated but remained significantly higher (adjusted hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.04-1.58) after controlling for differences in sociodemographics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables. Homeless adults were also far more likely to use acute care services (median [interquartile range] number of emergency department visits was 9 [4-20] versus 1 [0-4], P<0.001) than housed counterparts.
Homeless adults with CKD suffer from increased morbidity and mortality and use costly acute care services far more frequently than peers who are stably housed. These findings warrant additional inquiry into the unmet health needs of the homeless with CKD to provide appropriate and effective care to this disadvantaged group.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
141 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between access and use of primary care physicians as sources of first contact and continuity with the medical system. Data from the 1987 National Medical expenditure Survey were used to examine the effects of access on use of primary care physicians as sources of first contact for new episodes of care (by logistic regression) and as sources of continuity for all ambulatory visits (by multi-variate linear regression). No after-hours care, longer office waits, and longer travel times reduced the chances of a first-contact visit with a primary care physician for acute health problems. Longer appointment waits, no insurance, and no after-hours care were associated with lower levels of continuity. Generalists provided more first-contact care than specialists acting as primary care physicians, largely because of their more accessible practices. These data provide support for the linkage between access and care seeking with primary care physicians.
    American Journal of Public Health 10/1998; 88(9):1330-6. · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Homelessness is believed to be a cause of health problems and high medical costs, but data supporting this association have been difficult to obtain. We compared lengths of stay and reasons for hospital admission among homeless and other low-income persons in New York City to estimate the hospitalization costs associated with homelessness. We obtained hospital-discharge data on 18,864 admissions of homeless adults to New York City's public general hospitals (excluding admissions for childbirth) and 383,986 nonmaternity admissions of other low-income adults to all general hospitals in New York City during 1992 and 1993. The differences in length of stay were adjusted for diagnosis-related group, principal diagnosis, selected coexisting illnesses, and demographic characteristics. Of the admissions of homeless people, 51.5 percent were for treatment of substance abuse or mental illness, as compared with 22.8 percent for the other low-income patients, and another 19.7 percent of the admissions of homeless people were for trauma, respiratory disorders, skin disorders, and infectious diseases (excluding the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]), many of which are potentially preventable medical conditions. For the homeless, 80.6 percent of the admissions involved either a principal or a secondary diagnosis of substance abuse or mental illness -- roughly twice the rates for the other patients. The homeless patients stayed 4.1 days, or 36 percent, longer per admission on average than the other patients, even after adjustments were made for differences in the rates of substance abuse and mental illness and other clinical and demographic characteristics. The costs of the additional days per discharge averaged $4,094 for psychiatric patients, $3,370 for patients with AIDS, and $2,414 for all types of patients. Homelessness is associated with substantial excess costs per hospital stay in New York City. Decisions to fund housing and supportive services for the homeless should take into account the potential of these services to reduce the high costs of hospitalization in this population.
    New England Journal of Medicine 07/1998; 338(24):1734-40. · 51.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Homeless persons face numerous barriers to receiving health care and have high rates of illness and disability. Factors associated with health care utilization by homeless persons have not been explored from a national perspective. To describe factors associated with use of and perceived barriers to receipt of health care among homeless persons. Secondary data analysis of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients. A total of 2974 currently homeless persons interviewed through homeless assistance programs throughout the United States in October and November 1996. Self-reported use of ambulatory care services, emergency departments, and inpatient hospital services; inability to receive necessary care; and inability to comply with prescription medication in the prior year. Overall, 62.8% of subjects had 1 or more ambulatory care visits during the preceding year, 32.2% visited an emergency department, and 23.3% had been hospitalized. However, 24.6% reported having been unable to receive necessary medical care. Of the 1201 respondents who reported having been prescribed medication, 32.1% reported being unable to comply. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, medical illness, mental health problems, substance abuse, and other covariates, having health insurance was associated with greater use of ambulatory care (odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-5.42), inpatient hospitalization (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.16-5.81), and lower reporting of barriers to needed care (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.90) and prescription medication compliance (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.85). Insurance was not associated with emergency department visits (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.47-1.75). In this nationally representative survey, homeless persons reported high levels of barriers to needed care and used acute hospital-based care at high rates. Insurance was associated with a greater use of ambulatory care and fewer reported barriers. Provision of insurance may improve the substantial morbidity experienced by homeless persons and decrease their reliance on acute hospital-based care.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 02/2001; 285(2):200-6. · 29.98 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from