Dose Escalation Study of No-Carrier-Added I-131-Metaiodobenzylguanidine for Relapsed or Refractory Neuroblastoma: New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy Consortium Trial
ABSTRACT (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) is specifically taken up in neuroblastoma, with a response rate of 20%-37% in relapsed disease. Nonradioactive carrier MIBG molecules inhibit uptake of (131)I-MIBG, theoretically resulting in less tumor radiation and increased risk of cardiovascular toxicity. Our aim was to establish the maximum tolerated dose of no-carrier-added (NCA) (131)I-MIBG, with secondary aims of assessing tumor and organ dosimetry and overall response.
Eligible patients were 1-30 y old with resistant neuroblastoma, (131)I-MIBG uptake, and cryopreserved hematopoietic stem cells. A diagnostic dose of NCA (131)I-MIBG was followed by 3 dosimetry scans to assess radiation dose to critical organs and soft-tissue tumors. The treatment dose of NCA (131)I-MIBG (specific activity, 165 MBq/μg) was adjusted as necessary on the basis of critical organ tolerance limits. Autologous hematopoietic stem cells were infused 14 d after therapy to abrogate prolonged myelosuppression. Response and toxicity were evaluated on day 60. The NCA (131)I-MIBG was escalated from 444 to 777 MBq/kg (12-21 mCi/kg) using a 3 + 3 design. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was failure to reconstitute neutrophils to greater than 500/μL within 28 d or platelets to greater than 20,000/μL within 56 d, or grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0) except for predefined exclusions.
Three patients each were evaluable at 444, 555, and 666 MBq/kg without DLT. The dose of 777 MBq/kg dose was not feasible because of organ dosimetry limits; however, 3 assigned patients were evaluable for a received dose of 666 MBq/kg, providing a total of 6 patients evaluable for toxicity at 666 MBq/kg without DLT. Mean whole-body radiation was 0.23 mGy/MBq, and mean organ doses were 0.92, 0.82, and 1.2 mGy/MBq of MIBG for the liver, lung, and kidney, respectively. Eight patients had 13 soft-tissue lesions with tumor-absorbed doses of 26-378 Gy. Four of 15 patients had a complete (n = 1) or partial (n = 3) response, 1 had a mixed response, 4 had stable disease, and 6 had progressive disease.
NCA (131)I-MIBG with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is feasible at 666 MBq/kg without significant nonhematologic toxicity and with promising activity.
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ABSTRACT: A highly cross-linked polystyrene resin bearing a reactive chlorostannane moiety 1 has been used to generate a variety of arylstannane radiopharmaceutical precursors for no-carrier-added radioiodination. The resins were characterized for their solvent compatibility and sensitivity to acid cleavage. Resin-supported arylstannanes synthesized via their aryllithium analogues include 3- and 4-stannylbenzaldehydes, 3- and 4-stannylbenzoic acids, and 3- and 4-N-succinimidyl benzoates. A three-step route to the resin-supported stannylbenzoic acids 12a/b was developed through resin-supported benzaldehydes 11a/b. The aldehyde to acid conversion efficiency is >90%, and acid loading capacities of 0.66–0.94 mmol/g were obtained. Resin-supported N-succinimidyl benzoates 16a/b were prepared from the acid with 78%–84% conversion efficiency. Libraries of resin-supported benzamides 19a/b prepared from amine conjugation to corresponding benzoic acids or N-succinimidyl benzoates are described. A third approach describes the preparation of resin-supported benzamides via direct conjugation of the dilithio salt of the intact benzamide to the chlorostannane resin 1. Lastly, as proof-of-principle, a radiolabeling study with iodine-131 (131I) was performed with a resin-supported benzamide to afford the corresponding radioligand in moderate yields, and high radiochemical purity.Canadian Journal of Chemistry 02/2015; 93(2). DOI:10.1139/cjc-2014-0265 · 1.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease and have a 5-year event-free survival of <50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. In this review we evaluate 3 promising targeted therapies: (i) (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical that is taken up by human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), which is expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas; (ii) immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, which is expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells; and (iii) inhibitors of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a tyrosine kinase that is mutated or amplified in ~10% of neuroblastomas and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early-phase trials have confirmed the activity of (131)I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of ~30%, but the technical aspects of administering large amounts of radioactivity in young children and limited access to this agent have hindered its incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also shown activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small-molecule inhibitor of ALK has shown promising preclinical activity for neuroblastoma and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma.Clinical Cancer Research 05/2012; 18(10):2740-53. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-1939 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than half of the patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) will relapse despite intensive multimodal therapy, with an additional 10% to 20% refractory to induction chemotherapy. Management of these patients is challenging, given disease heterogeneity, resistance, and organ toxicity including poor hematological reserve. This review will discuss the current treatment options and consider novel therapies on the horizon. Cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens for relapse and refractory NB typically center on the use of the camptothecins, topotecan and irinotecan, in combination with agents such as cyclophosphamide and temozolomide, with objective responses but poor long-term survival. I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy is also effective for relapsed patients with meta-iodobenzylguanidine-avid disease, with objective responses in a third of cases. Immunotherapy with anti-GD2 has recently been incorporated into upfront therapy, but its role in the relapse setting remains uncertain, especially for patients with bulky disease. Future cell-based immunotherapies and other approaches may be able to overcome this limitation. Finally, many novel molecularly targeted agents are in development, some of which show specific promise for NB. Successful incorporation of these agents will require combinations with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapies, as well as the development of predictive biomarkers, to ultimately personalize approaches to patients with "targetable" molecular abnormalities.Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 05/2013; DOI:10.1097/MPH.0b013e318299d637 · 0.96 Impact Factor