Changes in thyroid peroxidase activity in response to various chemicals.
ABSTRACT Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is a large heme-containing glycoprotein that catalyzes the transfer of iodine to thyroglobulin during thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis. Previously, we established an in vitro assay for TPO activity based on human recombinant TPO (hrTPO) stably transfected into human follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC-238) cells. It is important to determine whether environmental chemicals can disrupt TPO activity because it is an important factor in the TH axis. In this study, we used our assay to examine the changes in TPO activity in response to various chemicals, including benzophenones (BPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Overall, BPs, PAHs, and POPs slightly altered TPO activity at low doses, as compared with the positive controls methimazole (MMI), genistein, and 2,2',4,4'-tetrahydroxy BP. Benzophenone, benzhydrol, 3-methylchloranthracene, pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and heptachlor decreased TPO activity, while 2,4-dihydroxy BP, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxy BP, and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene increased TPO activity. From these data, we can predict the disruption of TPO activity by various chemicals as a sensitive TH end point. TPO activity should be considered when enacting measures to regulate environmental exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals.
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in thyroid hormone production and a universal autoantigen in Graves' and other autoimmune thyroid diseases. We wished to explore the expression of TPO and whether it was affected by thionamide antithyroid drugs. We studied recombinant TPO, stably expressed by a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHO-TPO) and transiently expressed TPO-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and -FLAG fusion proteins. Immunoblotting of CHO-TPO cell extracts showed high-molecular weight (HMW) TPO isoforms that were resistant to reduction, as well as 110 kDa monomeric TPO. Co-immunoprecipitation and enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) binding studies of FLAG- and eGFP-tagged TPO demonstrated TPO dimerisation. CHO-TPO cells cultured in methimazole (MMI) for 10 days showed a significant reduction in HMW-TPO isoforms at MMI concentrations of 1 microM and above (p < 0.01), whereas monomeric TPO expression was unchanged. We observed a similar reduction in HMW-TPO in CHO-TPO cells cultured in propylthiouracil (10 microM and above). Binding of Graves' disease patient sera and TPO-Fabs to enzymatically active TPO that was captured onto solid phase was not abrogated by MMI. The cellular localisation of TPO in CHO-TPO cells was unchanged by MMI treatment. Our demonstration of homodimeric TPO and the reduction in HMW-TPO isoforms during thionamide treatment of CHO-TPO cells shows, for the first time, an effect of thionamides on TPO structure. This suggests a structural correlate to the effect of thionamides on TPO enzymatic activity and opens up a novel potential mechanism for thionamide immunomodulation of autoimmune thyroid disease.Journal of Molecular Medicine 09/2009; 87(10):971-80. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Five overlapping cDNA clones representing the entire mRNA for human thyroid peroxidase (TPO) have been isolated from a human Graves' thyroid cDNA library. The cDNA sequence has been determined. Human TPO cDNA contains 3060 bases from the start of transcription to the beginning of the poly (A) tail at the 3'-end. The derived amino acid sequence of human TPO consists of 933 amino acids with a mol wt of 102,937. The derived amino acid sequence contains five potential glycosylation sites (Asn-X-Ser/Thr), a probable transmembrane signal peptide sequence at the amino terminus, and a hydrophobic putative membrane-spanning region beginning 85 amino acid residues from the carboxyl terminal end. Comparison of the human TPO amino acid sequence to that of pig TPO shows strong homology extending from the amino terminus to within 44 amino acid residues of the carboxyl-terminus.Molecular Endocrinology 12/1987; 1(11):856-61. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to characterize the interaction of CH3HgCl or HgCl2 with thyroid peroxidase (TPO). Two types of experiments were performed. First, the thyroids from rats that were given 5.6 mg/kg/day of either CH3HgCl or HgCl2 for 2 weeks by intubation were subjected to histochemical treatment and then to electron microscopy. TPO activities in all cell compartments were inhibited by HgCl2 but not by CH3HgCl. Morphological observation showed that taller epithelia were induced by HgCl2, whereas flattened epithelia forming large follicles were induced by CH3HgCl. The serum thyrotropin level was substantially lowered by CH3HgCl but was unchanged by HgCl2. Second, the guaiacol oxidation by TPO in isolated and ruptured pig thyroid cells was spectrophotometrically monitored in the presence of either CH3HgCl or HgCl2. The TPO was not inhibited by CH3HgCl but was inhibited by HgCl2. These results indicated that CH3HgCl induced a hypothyroid state without affecting TPO, whereas HgCl2 inhibited TPO and induced a hypertropic state owing to compensation for loss of enzyme activity, and that the lack of inhibitory activity of CH3HgCl was not due to the inability to penetrate the cells. Therefore, there appeared to be a differential interaction of organic and inorganic forms of mercurials with the thyroid.Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 06/1989; 37(5):723-7. · 2.26 Impact Factor