Inactivated Polio Vaccine Time to introduce it in India's national immunization schedule

1Department of Community Medicine Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (Impact Factor: 2.37). 07/2012; 8(7):956-8. DOI: 10.4161/hv.20089
Source: PubMed


Polio is a communicable disease caused by poliovirus that may attack nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. The victims develop neurological complications, likes stiffness of the neck, muscular weakness, or paralysis of one or more limbs. In severe cases, it may be fatal due to respiratory paralysis. The world has seen tremendous gains in polio eradication over the past year. India and Nigeria saw a reduction in cases of almost 95% from 2009 to 2010, and cases of wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) fell by 92% globally over the same period. In fact, no case has been reported in India since February 2011, such that India may be on the verge of eradicating polio. Nevertheless, polio control experts are particularly worried about Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus (VDPV). Global surveillance efforts picked up 430 cases of VDPV from several countries between July 2009 and March 2011. In India, 7 cases of VDPV were reported during the year 2011. As long as OPV is used, virologists say that the world is at risk of VDPV causing polio in unprotected children. Achieving a polio-free world will require the "cessation of all OPV" and with it the elimination of the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) or VDPV infections. To this effect, in 2011 the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) will produce and develop a new roadmap for VDPV Elimination. Several countries have shifted from all OPV to sequential OPV-IPV schedules and all-IPV schedules with elimination of live poliovirus. IPV will be indispensable in the post-eradication era when use of OPV has to stop but "vaccination against polio" cannot stop. IPV offers complete individual protection and has been considered as an additional tool at present for those who can afford the vaccine, and since we are nearing the eradication of polio, it is time to shift from OPV to sequential OPV-IPV schedule in India. Such a strategy will avoid inevitable problems with VAPP.

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    ABSTRACT: Polio (poliomyelitis) is a potentially dangerous viral ailment. To combat this disease, researchers developed two polio vaccines (inactivated and live) grown in cultures made from monkey kidneys. Beginning in the 1950s, these vaccines were administered to millions of people in the United States and throughout the world. Officially, the polio vaccine is considered safe and effective, and has been credited with singularly reducing the incidence of this disease. These tenets are not supported by the data. A cancer-causing monkey virus-SV-40-was discovered in polio vaccines administered to millions of people. SV-40 has been found in brain tumors, bone cancers, lung cancers and leukemia. SV-40 is transmitted through sexual intercourse, and from mother to child in the womb. Monkeys that were used to make polio vaccines were infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus closely related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the infectious agent associated with AIDS. Some researchers question whether HIVs may simply be SIVs "residing in and adapting to a human host." Polio vaccines also contain calf serum, glycerol and other parts of the cow that may have been infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease, a fatal brain-wasting ailment that some researchers link to Cruetzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), its human equivalent. Current disease reduction techniques that emphasize short-term gains over long-term health consequences need to be reevaluated and discontinued while new and safer health paradigms are researched and implemented. ┬ęCopyright 2004, Neil Z. Miller. All rights reserved. 1. What is polio? Polio is a contagious disease caused by an intestinal virus that may attack nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include fever, headache, sore throat, and vomiting. Some victims develop neurological complications, including stiffness of the neck and back, weak muscles, pain in the joints, and paralysis of one or more limbs or respiratory muscles. In severe cases it may be fatal, due to respiratory paralysis.
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