Prevalence of cervical insufficiency in polycystic ovarian syndrome

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
Human Reproduction (Impact Factor: 4.57). 06/2012; 27(9):2837-42. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/des193
Source: PubMed


Pregnant women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) experience a greater rate of adverse obstetrical outcomes compared with non-PCOS women. We examined the prevalence and incidence of cervical insufficiency (CI) in a community cohort of pregnant women with and without PCOS.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted within a large integrated health care delivery system among non-diabetic PCOS women with second or third trimester delivery during 2002-2005 (singleton or twin gestation). PCOS was defined by Rotterdam criteria. A non-PCOS comparison group matched for delivery year and hospital facility was used to estimate the background rate of CI. Women were designated as having new CI diagnosed in the index pregnancy (based on cervical dilation and/or cervical shortening) and prior CI based on prior diagnosis of CI with prophylactic cerclage placed in the subsequent pregnancy.
We identified 999 PCOS women, of whom 29 (2.9%) had CI. There were 18 patients with new CI and 11 with prior CI having prophylactic cerclage placement; four CI patients had twin gestation. In contrast, only five (0.5%) non-PCOS women had CI: two with new CI and three with prior CI. The proportion of newly diagnosed incident CI (1.8 versus 0.2%) or prevalent CI (2.9 versus 0.5%) was significantly greater for PCOS compared with non-PCOS pregnant women (both P < 0.01). Among PCOS women, CI prevalence was particularly high among South Asians (7.8%) and Blacks (17.5%) compared with Whites (1%) and significantly associated with gonadotropin use (including in vitro fertilization). Overall, the PCOS status was associated with an increased odds of prevalent CI pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio 4.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5-15.4), even after adjusting for maternal age, nulliparity, race/ethnicity, body mass index and fertility treatment.
In this large and ethnically diverse PCOS cohort, we found that CI occurred with a higher than expected frequency in PCOS women, particularly among South Asian and Black women. PCOS women with CI were also more likely to have received gonadotropin therapy. Future studies should examine whether natural and hormone-altered PCOS is a risk factor for CI, the role of race/ethnicity, fertility drugs and consideration for heightened mid-trimester surveillance in higher risk subgroups of pregnant women with PCOS.

1 Follower
72 Reads
    • "PCOS women with CI were also more likely to have received gonadotropin therapy.[21] Future studies should examine whether natural and hormone-altered PCOS is a risk factor for CI, the role of race/ethnicity, fertility drugs and consideration for heightened mid-trimester surveillance in higher risk subgroups of pregnant women with PCOS. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is often accompanied by infertility that necessitates ovulation induction using clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins or even in vitro fertilization (IVF). These treatment methods are known to increase the incidence of multiple pregnancies as well as some negative consequences, including a rise in the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, etc., Furthermore, pregnancies established after IVF carry an increased risk for maternal complications. However, the increased risk of developing adverse obstetric complications has been suggested to occur independently of obesity as well as in populations without assisted reproductive techniques. Many studies have been performed to study the effect of PCOS on pregnancy and the effect of pregnancy on PCOS. The hormonal milieu that is exaggerated in PCOS women is quite well understood at the biochemical and genetic levels. The maternal and neonatal outcomes of PCOS women who have undergone in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) have not been widely studied till date. This review aims to evaluate the current evidence regarding adverse obstetric outcomes of PCOS women undergoing IVF-ET. The rationale of this review is to study whether the adverse obstetric outcomes are increased in PCOS women in general, or particularly in those PCOS women who are undergoing IVF-ET. It is also important to analyze via a literature review whether the increased adverse outcomes are due to infertility in general or PCOS per se. An attempt has been made to give evidence regarding preventive strategies for obstetric complications in PCOS women who have undergone IVF-ET.
    Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences 03/2014; 7(1):13-18. DOI:10.4103/0974-1208.130802
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this guideline is to provide a framework that clinicians can use to determine which women are at greatest risk of having cervical insufficiency and in which set of circumstances a cerclage is of potential value. Evidence: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., uterine cervical incompetence) and key words (e.g., cervical insufficiency, cerclage, Shirodkar, cerclage, MacDonald, cerclage, abdominal, cervical length, mid-trimester pregnancy loss). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to January 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Values: The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Recommendations 1. Women who are pregnant or planning pregnancy should be evaluated for risk factors for cervical insufficiency. A thorough medical history at initial evaluation may alert clinicians to risk factors in a first or index pregnancy. (III-B) 2. Detailed evaluation of risk factors should be undertaken in women following a mid-trimester pregnancy loss or early premature delivery, or in cases where such complications have occurred in a preceding pregnancy. (III-B) 3. In women with a history of cervical insufficiency, urinalysis for culture and sensitivity and vaginal cultures for bacterial vaginosis should be taken at the first obstetric visit and any infections so found should be treated. (I-A) 4. Women with a history of three or more second-trimester pregnancy losses or extreme premature deliveries, in whom no specific cause other than potential cervical insufficiency is identified, should be offered elective cerclage at 12 to 14 weeks of gestation. (I-A) 5. In women with a classic history of cervical insufficiency in whom prior vaginal cervical cerclage has been unsuccessful, abdominal cerclage can be considered in the absence of additional mitigating factors. (II-3C) 6. Women who have undergone trachelectomy should have abdominal cerclage placement. (II-3C) 7. Emergency cerclage may be considered in women in whom the cervix has dilated to < 4 cm without contractions before 24 weeks of gestation. (II-3C) 8. Women in whom cerclage is not considered or justified, but whose history suggests a risk for cervical insufficiency (1 or 2 prior mid-trimester losses or extreme premature deliveries), should be offered serial cervical length assessment by ultrasound. (II-2B) 9. Cerclage should be considered in singleton pregnancies in women with a history of spontaneous preterm birth or possible cervical insufficiency if the cervical length is ≤ 25 mm before 24 weeks of gestation. (I-A) 10. There is no benefit to cerclage in a woman with an incidental finding of a short cervix by ultrasound examination but no prior risk factors for preterm birth. (II-1D) 11. Present data do not support the use of elective cerclage in multiple gestations even when there is a history of preterm birth; therefore, this should be avoided. (I-D) 12. The literature does not support the insertion of cerclage in multiple gestations on the basis of cervical length. (II-1D).
    Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada: JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada: JOGC 12/2013; 35(12):1115-27.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to examine the role of hyperandrogenaemia. Cohort study. Singleton pregnancies in women with PCOS identified at a private fertility clinic during 1997-2010 and a background population including all singleton deliveries at Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, in 2005. A cohort of 459 women with PCOS and a background population of 5409 women. Obstetric outcomes were extracted from national Danish registries and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, parity, and body mass index. Risk of pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery, and small for gestational age offspring in the entire PCOS population and in a subsample with hyperandrogenaemia. Women with PCOS had an increased risk of preterm delivery <37 weeks of gestation (OR 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.51-3.45; P < 0.0001). The elevated risk was confined to hyperandrogenic women with PCOS: preterm delivery before 37 weeks of gestation (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.62-4.77; P < 0.0001), and was not seen in normoandrogenic women with PCOS (OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.54-3.39; P = 0.52). The overall risk of pre-eclampsia was not elevated (OR 1.69; 95% CI 0.99-2.88; P = 0.05) compared with the background population, but was significantly increased in the hyperandrogenic subsample (OR 2.41; 95% CI 1.26-4.58; P < 0.001). The risk of small for gestational age offspring was similar in all groups. Women with PCOS had an increased risk of preterm delivery compared with the background population. The increased risk was confined to hyperandrogenic women with PCOS who had a two-fold increased risk of preterm delivery and pre-eclampsia.
    BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 01/2014; 121(5). DOI:10.1111/1471-0528.12558 · 3.45 Impact Factor
Show more