Thymol nanospheres as an effective anti-bacterial agent.
ABSTRACT Among thymol, carvacrol, citronellal, eugenol and terpinen-4-ol, thymol showed the highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thymol was then encapsulated into water dispersible submicron sized ethylcellulose/methylcellulose spheres, attaining the relatively high thymol loading level of 43.53% (weight of encapsulated thymol to weight of the thymol-loaded spheres). When tested against the same three bacterial strains, the encapsulated thymol gave comparable minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values to the unencapsulated compound while mostly showing lower MIC and MBC values than the conventionally used preservative, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (methylparaben). The use of encapsulated thymol at 0.078, 0.156 and 0.625 mg ml(-1) (0.52, 1.04 and 4.16 mmol(-1), respectively) in cosmetic lotion formulations provided total suppression of viable E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa growth (all initially seeded at 10(5) cfu ml(-1)), respectively, over the three month test period, whereas unencapsulated thymol showed effective suppression for only 2-4 weeks. Effective bacterial suppression by encapsulated thymol was also observed when used in cream and aqueous gel cosmetic formulations.
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ABSTRACT: Through this study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the solubility of thymol in supercritical carbon dioxide as well to investigate a prospect of its impregnation on cotton gauze on laboratory scale. Solubility of thymol in supercritical carbon dioxide was determined at temperatures of 35 °C, 40 °C and 50 °C, and pressures ranging from 7.8 to 25 MPa (CO2 density range 335.89–849.60 kg/m3) using a static method. The solubility data were correlated using semi-empirical equations introduced by Chrastil, Adachi and Lu and del Valle and Aguilera. Taking into account obtained results, temperature of 35 °C and pressure of 15.5 MPa were selected as operating conditions for the impregnation process. Impregnation of cotton gauze with thymol was performed in a cell using carbon dioxide as a solvent. Kinetics of the process was determined and modeled. Masses of thymol on cotton gauzes after 2 h and 24 h of impregnation were 11% and 19.6%, respectively. FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of thymol on the surface of the cotton fibers. The impregnated gauze provided strong antimicrobial activity against tested strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans.Journal of Supercritical Fluids The 12/2013; 84:173-181. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Essential oils are complex blends of a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenoids, phenol-derived aromatic components, and aliphatic components having a strong interest in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agricultural, and food industries. Since the middle ages, essential oils have been widely used for bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical, insecticidal, and other medicinal properties such as analgesic, sedative, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, and locally anaesthetic remedies. In this review their nanoencapsulation in drug delivery systems has been proposed for their capability of decreasing volatility, improving the stability, water solubility, and efficacy of essential oil-based formulations, by maintenance of therapeutic efficacy. Two categories of nanocarriers can be proposed: polymeric nanoparticulate formulations, extensively studied with significant improvement of the essential oil antimicrobial activity, and lipid carriers, including liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid particles, and nano- and microemulsions. Furthermore, molecular complexes such as cyclodextrin inclusion complexes also represent a valid strategy to increase water solubility and stability and bioavailability and decrease volatility of essential oils.Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 01/2014; 2014:651593.