Translation and adaptation of the fatigue severity scale for use in Portugal.
ABSTRACT The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) is a widely used instrument to measure the impact of fatigue on specific types of functioning. This study aims to translate and test the reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the FSS. The questionnaire was administered to a worker sample of 424 nurses. Reliability analysis showed satisfactory results (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = .87). The test-retest reliability was .85. The principal component analysis showed that the FSS was a measure with a one-factor structure. The construct validity of the total FSS score was assessed by correlation with Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) score, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) score, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score. Each of the corresponding correlation coefficients among the total FSS score and MBI score, DASS score, and perceived fatigue score (VAS) were .55 (p < .01), .62 (p < .01), and .68 (p < .01), respectively, which shows sufficient construct validity. To measure the discriminant validity of FSS, we examined the differences in scores between groups in terms of the number of hours of sleep and overtime. The less nurses slept and the longer they worked, the higher their total FSS score became. This preliminary validation study of the Portuguese version of FSS proved that it is an acceptable, reliable, and valid measure of fatigue in the working population.
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ABSTRACT: During the early stages of language acquisition, children pass through a stage of development when they produce both finite and nonfinite verb forms in finite contexts (e.g., "it go there," "it goes there"). Theorists who assume that children operate with an abstract understanding of tense and agreement marking from the beginnings of language use tend to explain this phenomenon in terms of either performance limitations in production (e.g., V. Valian, 1991) or the optional use of finite forms in finite contexts due to a lack of knowledge that tense and agreement marking is obligatory (the optional infinitive hypothesis; K. Wexler, 1994, 1996). An alternative explanation, however, is that children's use of nonfinite forms is based on the presence of questions in the input ("Where does it go?") where the grammatical subject is immediately followed by a nonfinite verb form. To compare these explanations, 2 groups of 24 children aged between 2 years 6 months and 3 years were exposed to 6 known and 3 novel verbs produced in either declaratives or questions or in both declaratives and questions. The children were then questioned to elicit use of the verbs in either finite or nonfinite contexts. The results show that for novel verbs, the children's patterns of verb use were closely related to the patterns of verb use modeled in the language to which they were exposed. For known verbs, there were no differences in the children's use of individual verbs, regardless of the specific patterns of verb use modeled in the language they heard. The implications of these findings for theories of early verb use are discussed.Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research 09/2003; 46(4):863-77. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current study examines the syntactic and prosodic characteristics of the maternal speech to two infants between six and ten months. Consistent with previous work, we find infant-directed speech to be characterized by generally short utterances, isolated words and phrases, and large numbers of questions, but longer utterances are also found. Prosodic information provides cues to grammatical units not only at utterance boundaries, but also at utterance-internal clause boundaries. Subject-verb phrase boundaries in questions also show reliable prosodic cues, although those of declaratives do not. Prosodic information may thus play an important role in providing preverbal infants with information about the grammatically relevant word groupings. Furthermore, questions may play an important role in infants' discovery of verb phrases in English.Journal of Child Language 12/2008; 35(4):869-902. · 1.41 Impact Factor