Inhibition of nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages by resveratrol, a potent proteasome inhibitor.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.
Lipids in Health and Disease (Impact Factor: 2.31). 06/2012; 11:76. DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-76
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Altered immune function during ageing results in increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and other inflammatory mediators. Recently, we have reported that NO production was inhibited by naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors (quercetin, δ-tocotrienol, and riboflavin) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice. In a continuous effort to find more potent, non-toxic, commercially available, naturally-occurring proteasome inhibitors that suppress inflammation, the present study was carried out to describe the inhibition of NF-κB activation and NO, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and iNOS expression by trans-resveratrol, trans-pterostilbene, morin hydrate, and nicotinic acid in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.
The present results indicate that resveratrol, pterostilbene, and morin hydrate caused significant inhibition (>70% to 90%; P < 0.02) in the activities of chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and post-acidic (post-glutamase) proteasome sites in RAW 264.7 cells at a dose of only 20 μM. These compounds also inhibited the production of NO by RAW-264.7 cells stimulated with LPS alone (>40%; P < 0.05), or LPS + interferon-γ (IFN-γ; >60%; P < 0.02). Furthermore, resveratrol, pterostilbene, morin hydrate, and quercetin suppressed secretion of TNF-α (>40%; P < 0.05) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and suppressed NF-κB activation (22% to 45%; P < 0.05) in LPS-stimulated HEK293T cells. These compounds also significantly suppressed LPS-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS genes in RAW 264.7 cells, and also in thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.
The present results clearly demonstrate that resveratrol and pterostilbene are particularly potent proteasome inhibitors that suppress expression of genes, and production of inflammatory products in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, and macrophages from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Resveratrol and pterostilbene which are present in grapes, blueberries, and red wine, have been implicated as contributing factors to the lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in the French population, despite their relatively high dietary fat intake. Consequently, it appears likely that the beneficial nutritional effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene are due at least in part, to their ability to inhibit NF-κB activation by the proteasome, thereby suppressing activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS genes, resulting in decreased secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NO levels, in response to inflammatory stimuli. This is the first report demonstrating that resveratrol and pterostilbene act as proteasome inhibitors, thus providing a mechanism for their anti-inflammatory effects.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (trans-3,4'-trihydroxystillbene), a naturally occurring polyphenolic antioxidant found in grapes and red wine, elicits diverse biochemical responses and demonstrates anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative effects in several cell types. Previously, resveratrol was shown to regulate differentiation and inflammation in rabbit articular chondrocytes, while the direct production of nitric oxide (NO) in these cells by treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) led to apoptosis. In this study, the effect of resveratrol on NO-induced apoptosis in rabbit articular chondrocytes was investigated. Resveratrol dramatically reduced NO-induced apoptosis in chondrocytes, as determined by phase-contrast microscopy, the MTT assay, FACS analysis, and DAPI staining. Treatment with resveratrol inhibited the SNP-induced expression of p53 and p21 and reduced the expression of procaspase-3 in chondrocytes, as detected by western blot analysis. SNP-induced degradation of I-kappa B alpha (IκB-α) was rescued by resveratrol treatment, and the SN50 peptide-mediated inhibition of NF-kappa B (NF-κB) activity potently blocked SNP-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Our results suggest that resveratrol inhibits NO-induced apoptosis through the NF-κB pathway in articular chondrocytes.
    Biomolecules and Therapeutics 09/2013; 21(5):364-70. · 0.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Atropa acuminata has been widely used in folk medicine for several inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, asthma, conjunctivitis, encephalitis, pancreatitis, peritonitis, acute infections and neuoroinflammatory disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aim was to evaluate Atropa accuminata for its anti-inflammatory properties and to delineate its possible mechanism of action on the modulation of the inflammatory mediators. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the inhibitory action of ethanolic extract of Atropa accuminata (AAEE) on production of NO, TNF-α and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and also assayed it for COX 1/2 and 5-LOX inhibitory activities. Next AAEE was tested in acute inflammatory animal models., carrgaenean induced rat paw edema, carragenean induce pleurisy in rats and vascular permeability in mice and the effects on NO, PGE2 and LTB4 production in the pleural fluid and paw exudates were evaluated. In addition the effects on leukocyte migration and exudation and vascular permeability were also observed. RESULTS: Our findings summarized novel anti-inflammatory mechanisms for A.accuminata based on dual in vitro Cycloxygenase 1&2/ 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and also significant downregulation of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α and Il-1 β ) release in LPS-stimulated RAW 246.7 macrophage cell line. In acute inflammatory models in vivo (carrageenan induced edema, carrageenan induced pleurisy in rats and vascular permeability in mice), AAEE exhibited an extensive diverse mechanism for anti-inflammatory properties. This was indicated on the basis of dose dependent suppression of multi targeted inflammatory mediators., NO, TNF-α and IL-1β, eicosanoids., PGE2 and leukotrienes., LTB4 along with significantly decreased leucocyte migration, exudation and decreased vascular permeability. These effects were more potent and prolonged than traditional NSAIDS, thereby indicating fewer side effects. AAEE was found to be safe for long term administration, as confirmed by the results of acute toxicity studies and MTT assay. The complex mode of action of the herbs was attributed possibly due to the high polyphenolic, flavanol and flavonoid content present in the extracts as observed by means of quantitative screening for phytochemicals. CONCLUSION: Our study provide scientific evidence to support the traditional anti-inflammatory uses of A.Acuminata and is probably due to inhibitory effects on multiple inflammatory mediators which indicates a promising potential for the development of a strong anti-inflammatory agent from this plant.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 03/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: the proinflammatory M1 subset and the anti-inflammatory M2 one. 7-oxo-cholesterol, the most abundant cholesterol autoxidation product within atherosclerotic plaque, is able to skew the M1/M2 balance towards a proinflammatory profile. In the present study, we explored the ability of the polyphenolic compound resveratrol to counteract the 7-oxo-cholesterol-triggered proinflammatory signaling in macrophages. Resveratrol-pretreated human monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophages were challenged with 7-oxo-cholesterol and analyzed for phenotype and endocytic ability by flow cytometry, for metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2 and MMP-9 by gelatin zymography, and for cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor secretome by a multiplex immunoassay. We also investigated the NF- κ B signaling pathway. In the M1 subset, resveratrol prevented the downregulation of CD16 and the upregulation of MMP-2 in response to 7-oxo-cholesterol, whereas in M2 macrophages it prevented the upregulation of CD14, MMP-2, and MMP-9 and the downregulation of endocytosis. Resveratrol prevented the upregulation of several proinflammatory and proangiogenic molecules in both subsets. We identified modulation of NF- κ B as a potential mechanism implicated in 7-oxo-cholesterol and resveratrol effects. Our results strengthen previous findings on the immunomodulatory ability of resveratrol and highlight its role as potential therapeutic or preventive compound, to counteract the proatherogenic oxysterol signaling within atherosclerotic plaque.
    Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 01/2014; 2014:257543. · 3.39 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 28, 2014