Life expectancy at birth has increased from 74 years in 1980 to 78 years in 2006. Older adults (aged 65 years and older) are living longer with cardiovascular conditions, which are leading causes of death and disability and thus an important public health concern. We describe several major issues, including the impact of comorbidities, the role of cognitive health, prevention and intervention approaches, and opportunities for collaboration to strengthen the public health system. Prevention can be effective at any age, including for older adults. Public health models focusing on policy, systems, and environmental change approaches have the goal of providing social and physical environments and promoting healthy choices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primordial prevention is essential for reaching cardiovascular (CV) health. This is defined by seven health metrics identified by the American Heart Association. Aim of the present study was to assess prevalence and distribution of these seven CV health metrics within an unselected population.
All the 1110 consecutive individuals (mean age 56 ± 13 years; 56% women) who agreed to be screened within the context of a national campaign of CV prevention were included. The following findings have been considered as ideal: never/former smoker, regular participation in physical activity, body mass index lower than 25.0, healthy diet, cholesterol lower than 200 mg/dl, diabetes absence and a blood pressure lower than 120/80 mmHg.
Participants presented, on average, 4.1 ± 1.2 ideal CV health metrics, with a decreasing number across age-groups. Only 10.4% covered more than five ideal CV health metrics and 8.3% covered less than three ideal health metrics. Only 1.9% of the study population met all the seven ideal metrics. In particular, only 34% (379 subjects) in our population presented an ideal level of cholesterol. The higher prevalence was observed in younger subjects (45%) and the lower (28%) in people older than 62 years (P < 0.001).
Prevalence of the seven CV health metrics was low in our population and just 1 in 10 met more than five ideal CV health metrics. Social initiatives and awareness policies from governments are mandatory to promote CV health. Further studies should address the impact of such CV metrics on several outcomes in European countries.
The European Journal of Public Health 10/2013; 23(5):858-62. DOI:10.1093/eurpub/ckt130 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Right hemisphere functional cerebral systems have reliably been associated with sympathetic nervous system arousal and the perception of negative affective events. The goal of the current research was to provide additional support for the capacity model of hostility by examining changes attributable to functional cerebral systems within the right hemisphere using a dual concurrent task paradigm. To incorporate exposure to negative affective and right-lateralized motor stress using this approach, high and low hostile individuals completed a series of grip-strength tasks before and after hearing a recording of angry infant vocalizations. Results supported the capacity model in that high hostile individuals were unable to maintain regulatory control over right hemisphere activation as indicated through increased motor perseveration in the pre- and post-affective stress conditions, heightened systolic blood pressure (SBP) upon exposure to negative emotional sounds, and increased heart rate (HR) following stress. Conversely, low hostile individuals showed improved regulatory control over these regions as evidenced by reduced motor perseveration in the pre- and post-affective stress conditions, maintenance of SBP and reductions in HR following stress. The current data support the capacity model and extend its scope to include exposure to affective and right-lateralized motor stress.
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