Overview of violence to self and others during the first episode of psychosis.
ABSTRACT We aimed to review the evidence for an association between the first episode of psychosis and violence and to consider the possible explanations for this association and the implications for clinicians and service providers.
We searched for published studies in English describing an association between violence and first-episode psychosis using the subject headings, key words, abstracts, and titles in PubMed/MEDLINE from 1970 to 2010, using the terms first-episode schizophrenia OR first-episode psychosis OR early schizophrenia AND suicide OR self harm OR suicide attempt OR homicide OR violence.
We identified 20 studies reporting data on violent suicide attempts, self-mutilation, minor violence, severe nonlethal interpersonal violence, or homicide in first-episode and previously treated psychosis.
The number of people committing acts of violence prior to initial treatment for psychosis and after initial treatment was extracted from the relevant studies.
The proportion of people found to be in the first episode of psychosis at the time of an act of violence was compared to the expected ratio of first-episode to previously treated patients. A substantial proportion of psychotic patients examined after violent suicide attempts (49%), major self-mutilation (54%), homicide (39%), and assault resulting in serious injury (38%) are in their first episode of psychosis. Moreover, a substantial proportion of first-episode patients commit an act of less serious violence or attempt suicide prior to initial treatment.
The findings support the need for early intervention and community-wide programs to reduce the duration of untreated psychosis.
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ABSTRACT: Background Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is one of the few potentially modifiable predictors of outcomes of schizophrenia. Long DUP as a predictor of poor short-term outcome has been addressed in previous meta-analyses, but the long-term effects of DUP remain unclear. Aims To analyse the associations between DUP and long-term outcomes of schizophrenia. Method A systematic literature search was performed using seven electronic databases and manual searches. Random effects weighted meta-analysis with correlation coefficients was used to pool the results. Results We identified 3493 unique publications, from which 33 samples met our predefined selection criteria. Long DUP correlated statistically significantly with poor general symptomatic outcome, more severe positive and negative symptoms, lesser likelihood of remission and poor social functioning and global outcome (correlations 0.13-0.18). Long DUP was not associated with employment, quality of life or hospital treatment. Conclusions The small but mostly consistent correlation between long DUP and poor outcome indicates that early intervention in psychosis may have at least subtle positive effects on the long-term course of illness.The British Journal of Psychiatry 08/2014; 205(2):88-94. · 7.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Suicide is highly-prevalent and the most serious outcome in schizophrenia, yet the disturbances in neural system functions that confer suicide risk remain obscure. Circuits operated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in psychotic disorders, and various PFC changes are observed in post-mortem studies of completed suicide. We tested whether PFC activity during goal-representation (an important component of cognitive control) relates to long-term suicide risk in recent-onset schizophrenia. Method 35 patients with recent-onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined schizophrenia (SZ) were evaluated for long-term suicide risk (using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale) and functional MRI during cognitive control task performance. Group-level regression models associating control-related brain activation with suicide risk controlled for depression, psychosis and impulsivity. Results Within this group, past suicidal ideation was associated with lower activation with goal-representation demands in multiple PFC sectors. Among those with past suicidal ideation (n = 18), reported suicidal behavior was associated with lower control-related activation in premotor cortex ipsilateral to the active primary motor cortex. Conclusions This study provides unique evidence that suicide risk directly relates to PFC-based circuit dysfunction during goal-representation, in a major mental illness with significant suicide rates. Among those with suicidal ideation, the overt expression in suicidal behavior may stem from impairments in premotor cortex support of action-planning as an expression of control. Further work should address how PFC-based control function changes with risk over time, whether this brain–behavior relationship is specific to schizophrenia, and address its potential utility as a biomarker for interventions to mitigate suicide risk.Schizophrenia Research 08/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Psychotic disorders are associated with an increased risk for suicide attempts, the etiology of which remains unknown across diagnoses. Thus it is relevant to understand how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the liability to suicide attempts in psychosis. The current study aims to examine the role of genetic and environmental factors in suicide attempts across psychotic disorders in twins concordant for psychosis. The study population consisted of all twin pairs in the Israeli National Psychiatric Case Registry hospitalized with a last discharge diagnosis of a psychotic disorder. Twin pairs (N=116) were born between 1900 and 1993 and hospitalized from 1964 to 2001. Competing genetic models were examined to decompose the variance in suicide attempts into: the individual-specific environment (unique), shared-family environment, and genetic effects. Across schizophrenia, psychosis and non-affective psychosis comparison of genetic models showed a model combining shared-family and unique environmental effects was superior to competing genetic models. Modeling estimates for attempted suicide were: in non-affective psychosis 60% to the shared-family and 40% to the unique environment; in schizophrenia 60% to the shared-family and 40% unique; and in psychosis 66% to the shared-family and 34% to the unique environment. Across psychosis, schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis vulnerability toward suicide attempts consists predominantly of substantial individual and familial environmental elements.European Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2014; · 5.40 Impact Factor