Attenuation of pressor response and dose sparing of opioids and anaesthetics with pre-operative dexmedetomidine
ABSTRACT Alpha-2 agonists are being increasingly used as adjuncts in general anaesthesia, and the present study was carried out to investigate the ability of intravenous dexmedetomidine in decreasing the dose of opioids and anaesthetics for attenuation of haemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation.
ONE HUNDRED PATIENTS SCHEDULED FOR ELECTIVE GENERAL SURGERY WERE RANDOMIZED INTO TWO GROUPS: D and F (n=50 in each group). Group D were administered 1 μg/kg each of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl while group F received 2 μg/kg of fentanyl pre-operatively. Thiopental was given until eyelash reflex disappeared. Anaesthesia was maintained with 33:66 oxygen: nitrous oxide. Isoflurane concentration was adjusted to maintain systolic blood pressure within 20% of the pre-operative values. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded at regular intervals during induction, intubation, surgery and extubation. Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance, chi-square test, Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test.
The demographic profile was comparable. The pressor response to laryngoscopy, intubation, surgery and extubation were effectively decreased by dexmedetomidine, and were highly significant on comparison (P<0.001). The mean dose of fentanyl and isoflurane were also decreased significantly (>50%) by the administration of dexmedetomidine. The mean recovery time was also shorter in group D as compared with group F (P=0.014).
Dexmedetomidine is an excellent drug as it not only decreased the magnitude of haemodynamic response to intubation, surgery and extubation but also decreased the dose of opioids and isoflurane in achieving adequate analgesia and anaesthesia, respectively.
- Indian journal of anaesthesia 11/2012; 56(6):513-7. DOI:10.4103/0019-5049.104564
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ABSTRACT: Nasal packing after the nasal surgery can be extremely hazardous and can lead to airway complications such as dyspnea and respiratory obstruction. The present study aimed at comparing the traditional nasal packing with nasal airway during the immediate postoperative period in patients undergoing fibreoptic endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) under general anaesthesia (GA) with regards to airway management. The study groups consisted of 90 ASA grade I and II patients aged 16 to 58 years who underwent FESS under GA. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups: Group NP, UA and Group BA of 30 patients each. At the end of surgery, Group NP patients were managed with traditional bilateral nasal packing while a presterilized 5 mm ID uncuffed ETT was cut to an appropriate size and inserted into one of the nostrils in UA and bilaterally in BA group patients. During postoperative period following parameters and variables were observed over the next 24 hours: Any respiratory distress or obstruction, pain and discomfort, oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood pressure, bleeding episode, ease of suctioning through nasal airway, anaesthesiologists and surgeons satisfaction during postoperative period, discomfort during removal of nasal airway and any fresh bleeding episode during removal of nasal airway. The data was compiled and analyzed using Chi-square test and ANOVA with post-hoc significance. Value of P < 0.05 was considered significant and P < 0.0001 as highly significant. The post-op mean cardio-respiratory parameters showed significant variations among NP group (P < 0.05) and the patient of UA and BA groups while intergroup comparison between UA and BA was non-significant (P > 0.05). Pain and discomfort, bleeding episode, ease of suctioning through nasal airway, pain and bleeding during removal of nasal airway (P < 0.0001) as well as surgeons and anaesthesiologists satisfaction criteria showed significant results among the NP group as compared to UA and BA groups (P < 0.05). The present intervention to maintain airway patency can be termed as excellent with additional benefits like ease of suctioning; oxygen supplementation and a possible haemostatic effect due to pressure on the operated site. The low cost of the modified nasal airway and easily replicable design were the standout observations of the present study.11/2012; 7(1):116-122. DOI:10.4103/0259-1162.114017
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ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is one of the most common encountered neurological disorders. Surgical procedures in epileptic patient throw numerous challenges to the attending anesthesiologist during the perioperative period. Various anesthetic drug interactions with antiepileptics, intraoperative and postoperative seizures management and management of status epilepticus are few considerations which an anesthesiologist can confront both during emergency or elective surgery. The role of anesthesiologist acquires significant dimensions in management of epilepsy ranging from operative procedure, status epilepticus to the intensive care management of such patients. It requires a skilful and clinically precise handling of such patients during pre-op, peri-op and post-op period. Majority of times these patients present with co-morbidities which makes the prophylactic management of epilepsy extremely difficult during surgical procedures. The responsibilities of anesthesiologist involve management of epileptic patients not only during epilepsy and nonepilepsy surgery but for other diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as well where sedation or anesthesia services are required. Postoperative management of such patients include careful observation for any seizures and/or pseudo-seizures so as to manage appropriately. The knowledge regarding various antiepileptic agents and their potential side effects and interactions with anesthetic agents are of prime concern during surgical procedures for epilepsy and nonepileptic surgeries. The present article discusses the various anesthetic implications and considerations during management of such patients for epilepsy and nonepilepsy surgery.11/2012; 7(1):10-17. DOI:10.4103/0259-1162.113978