Iron and Neurodegeneration: From Cellular Homeostasis to Disease

Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, EAN, Oeiras, Portugal.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (Impact Factor: 3.36). 05/2012; 2012:128647. DOI: 10.1155/2012/128647
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Accumulation of iron (Fe) is often detected in the brains of people suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. High Fe concentrations have been consistently observed in Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases; however, it is not clear whether this Fe contributes to the progression of these diseases. Other conditions, such as Friedreich's ataxia or neuroferritinopathy are associated with genetic factors that cause Fe misregulation. Consequently, excessive intracellular Fe increases oxidative stress, which leads to neuronal dysfunction and death. The characterization of the mechanisms involved in the misregulation of Fe in the brain is crucial to understand the pathology of the neurodegenerative disorders and develop new therapeutic strategies. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as the best understood eukaryotic organism, has already begun to play a role in the neurological disorders; thus it could perhaps become a valuable tool also to study the metalloneurobiology.

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    ABSTRACT: This work was aimed to study the protective role of α-lipoic acid against the oxidative damage of induced iron overload. Iron (Fe) overload is a complication of the treatment, by chronic transfusion, of a number of genetic diseases associated with inadequate red cell production (anemias) and of other genetic diseases that lead to excessive iron absorption from the diet. Male rats were injected ip with 5 mg/kg body weight ferrous sulfate for 50 days. The animals were injected ip with α-lipoic acid 20 mg per kg body weight for 21 days. Serum iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectrum of hemoglobin and osmotic fragility were studied. Results showed significant increase in serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and malonyldialdehyde levels in iron-loaded rats. Treatment with lipoic acid (LA) resulted in decreasing serum iron and TIBC levels by 47%and 29% respectively. At the same time the lipoic acid decreased the level of the MDA in liver, brain and plasma by 54%, 42% and 74% respectively. Also LA diminished the effect of iron-induced free radicals on erythrocyte membrane integrity; it decreased the elevated average osmotic fragility and decreased the elevated rate of hemolysis. Results from UV-visible spectrophotometric measurement of hemoglobin revealed that no oxidative changes of hemoglobin occurred in iron-loaded rats. EPR spectra showed increased in non-heme ferric ions Fe+3 and free radicals in iron-loaded rats. Whereas the injection of the lipoic acid leads to decreased in such toxic result. In conclusion, these observations suggested that lipoic acid might be a beneficial antioxidant that can be effective for limiting damage from oxidative stress of iron overload.
    11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jrras.2014.10.009
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    ABSTRACT: Iron overload causes progressive and sometimes irreversible damages due to accelerated production of reactive oxygen species. Desferrioxamine (DFO), a siderophore, has been used clinically to remove excess iron. However, the applications of DFO are limited because of its inability to access intracellular pools of labile iron. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have become an efficient delivery vector for the enhanced internalization of drugs into the cytosol. We describe, herein, an efficient method for covalently conjugating DFO to the CPPs TAT(47-57) and Penetratin. Both conjugates suppressed the redox activity of labile plasma iron in buffered solutions and in iron-overloaded sera. Enhanced access to intracellular labile iron compared to the parent siderophore was achieved in HeLa and RBE4 (a model of blood-brain-barrier) cell lines. Iron complexes of both conjugates also had a better permeability in both cell models. DFO antioxidant and iron binding properties were preserved and its bioavailability was increased upon CPPs conjugation, which opens new therapeutical possibilities for neurodegenerative processes associated with brain iron overload.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 10/2014; 25(11). DOI:10.1021/bc5004197 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal accumulation of iron is observed in neurodegenerative disorders. In Parkinson's disease, an excess of iron has been demonstrated in different structures of the basal ganglia and is suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Using the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of Parkinson's disease, the edematous effect of 6-OHDA and its relation with striatal iron accumulation was examined utilizing in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results revealed that in comparison with control animals, injection of 6-OHDA into the rat striatum provoked an edematous process, visible in T2-weighted images that was accompanied by an accumulation of iron clearly detectable in T2*-weighted images. Furthermore, Prussian blue staining to detect iron in sectioned brains confirmed the existence of accumulated iron in the areas of T2* hypointensities. The presence of ED1-positive microglia in the lesioned striatum overlapped with this accumulation of iron, indicating areas of toxicity and loss of dopamine nerve fibers. Correlation analyses demonstrated a direct relation between the hyperintensities caused by the edema and the hypointensities caused by the accumulation of iron.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112941. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112941 · 3.53 Impact Factor

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