Identification and characterization of eight microsatellite loci in Machilus pseudokobu (Lauraceae), an endemic species of the Bonin Islands
ABSTRACT Eight microsatellite loci were identified and characterized for the endangered Machilus pseudokobu (Lauraceae), an endemic tree species of the Bonin Islands. The observed number of alleles at each locus ranged from 1 to
20 with an average of 6.2, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.83 with an average of 0.47. All eight loci
were screened in cross-amplification tests for two other endemic Machilus species that also inhabit the Bonin Islands. All loci were successfully amplified in these species.
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ABSTRACT: An approach for developing codominant polymorphic markers (compound microsatellite (SSR) markers), with substantial time and cost savings, is introduced in this paper. In this technique, fragments flanked by a compound SSR sequence at one end were amplified from the constructed DNA library using compound SSR primer (AC)6(AG)5 or (TC)6(AC)5 and an adaptor primer for the suppression-PCR. A locus-specific primer was designed from the sequence flanking the compound SSR. The primer pairs of the locus-specific and compound SSR primers were used as a compound SSR marker. Because only one locus-specific primer was needed for design of each marker and only a common compound SSR primer was needed as the fluorescence-labeled primer for analyzing all the compound SSR markers, this approach substantially reduced the cost of developing codominant markers and analyzing their polymorphism. We have demonstrated this technique for Dendropanax trifidus and easily developed 11 codominant markers with high polymorphism for D. trifidus. Use of the technique for successful isolation of codominant compound SSR markers for several other plant species is currently in progress.Journal of Plant Research 08/2006; 119(4):415-7. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Bonin Islands are typical oceanic islands, located at the western part of the North Pacific Ocean and approximately 1,000 km south of mainland Japan. This archipelago consists of about 20 small islands. Although floristic diversity is low due to the small area and limited environmental diversity, the Bonin Islands harbor unique endemic flora as in other well-known oceanic islands. This paper presents a brief summary of the results obtained from recent studies on the endemic flora of the Bonin Islands. The results are reviewed in relation to the four stages of the evolution of endemic flora in the oceanic islands; migration, establishment, enlargement and diversification. The ancestors of the flora originated mostly from tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia or mainland Japan by rare events of long distance dispersal. The proportion of bird-dispersed species is relatively high as for other oceanic islands. Genetic data sets obtained from allozyme variation in some endemic species suggest that migration occurred several million years ago and genetic diversity is correlated with current population size. At the time of establishment, self-compatible plants are expected to have an advantage. However, the percentage of dioecious plants is relatively high. This is partly due to evolutionary changes from hermaphroditic ancestors to dioecy which occurred in two genera in the Bonin Islands. In addition, there are some examples of evolutionary changes from herbaceous ancestors to woody endemics. Adaptive radiation is found in some genera, although the number of congeneric endemic species is less than five. Studies of allozyme variation inPittosporum, Symplocos andCrepidiastrum showed that genetic identity is generally very high between congeneric species in spite of their distinct morphologies. This result suggests that divergence of these species occurred rather recently and distinct morphological differences are based on a limited number of genetic changes.Researches on Population Ecology 01/1998; 40(2):205-212.