Article

Nationalization and Globalization Trends in the Wild Mushroom Commerce of Italy with Emphasis on Porcini (Boletus edulis and Allied Species)

Professional Consulting Mycologist Loc. Farné 39—I-40042 Lizzano in Belvedere Italy
Economic Botany (Impact Factor: 1.93). 01/2008; 62(3):307-322. DOI: 10.1007/s12231-008-9037-4

ABSTRACT Nationalization and Globalization Trends in the Wild Mushroom Commerce of Italy with Emphasis on Porcini (
Boletus edulis
and Allied Species). This paper presents an historical overview of wild mushroom commerce in Italy, with a focus on recent trends in the production
of porcini (Boletus edulis and closely allied species). Over the past century, two major trends—nationalization and globalization—have been apparent
in the wild mushroom commerce of Italy. First, a simplified national mushroom menu has emerged through processes of governmental
regulation and culinary fashion, but it has come at the expense of differing, localized mushroom traditions which may suffer
under the European Union’s free trade principles. Second, Italy has emerged as a focal point of a global market for a small
number of mushroom species—particular porcini. While the name porcini has become synonymous with Italian cuisine, and in spite
of a vibrant tradition of recreational mushroom collecting in Italy, most of the porcini commercially available in Italy or
exported by Italy are no longer of Italian origin. Porcini and other mushrooms now flow into Italy from all over the world—especially
from China and eastern Europe—and are then often exported as “Italian porcini.” This globalization of the wild mushroom trade,
while offering significant income to rural producers and processors around the globe, has other effects as well, for example,
a kind of national branding as “Italian” of globally-produced products, of which porcini is one, that is in direct opposition
to some of the European Union’s rules for regional denominations.

Processi di Nazionalizzazione e Globalizzazione nel Commercio Italiano dei Funghi spontanei, con Particolare Riguardo ai Porcini
(
Boletus edulis
e Specie Affini). Questo articolo presenta una panoramica storica sul commercio dei funghi spontanei in Italia, con particolare riguardo alle
recenti tendenze nella produzione dei porcini (Boletus edulis e specie affini). Nello scorso secolo si sono osservate due tendenze principali—di nazionalizzazione e di globalizzazione—nel
commercio dei funghi spontanei in Italia. In primo luogo si è affermata nel territorio nazionale una tradizione limitata al
consumo di un numero contenuto di specie, sia per effetto di alcune normative che di mode culinarie, ma ciò è avvenuto a discapito
di tradizioni locali più ricche, che potrebbero ulteriormente risentire dei principi per il libero scambio all’interno dell’Unione
Europea. In secondo luogo, l’Italia si è posta in evidenza come un punto nodale per il mercato globale di alcune specie fungine,
in particolare dei porcini. Nonostante quest’ultimo termine sia tradizionalmente associato alla cucina italiana, e nonostante
esista in Italia una vivace e radicata tradizione nella raccolta amatoriale dei funghi, la maggior parte dei porcini ivi commercializzati
(allo stato fresco, essiccati o variamente conservati) o esportati verso altri paesi non sono più di origine locale. I porcini
e altre specie fungine giungono attualmente in Italia da ogni parte del mondo—in modo particolare dalla Cina e dall’Europa
orientale—e sono successivamente spesso esportati come “prodotti Italiani.” Questo processo di globalizzazione del mercato
dei funghi spontanei, pur offrendo un significativo introito ai raccoglitori e commercianti rurali su tutto il globo, è responsabile
di altri effetti, come per l’appunto una sorta di marchio nazionale “Italiano” su alcuni prodotti di provenienza globale,
come per l’appunto i porcini, cosa che contrasta con alcune delle regole dell’Unione Europea in materia di denominazioni regionali.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
145 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article on p. e37567 in vol. 7.].
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8). · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The wild gourmet mushroom Boletus edulis and its close allies are of significant ecological and economic importance. They are found throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but despite their ubiquity there are still many unresolved issues with regard to the taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this group of mushrooms. Most phylogenetic studies of Boletus so far have characterized samples from North America and Europe and little information is available on samples from other areas, including the ecologically and geographically diverse regions of China. Here we analyzed DNA sequence variation in three gene markers from samples of these mushrooms from across China and compared our findings with those from other representative regions. Our results revealed fifteen novel phylogenetic species (about one-third of the known species) and a newly identified lineage represented by Boletus sp. HKAS71346 from tropical Asia. The phylogenetic analyses support eastern Asia as the center of diversity for the porcini sensu stricto clade. Within this clade, B. edulis is the only known holarctic species. The majority of the other phylogenetic species are geographically restricted in their distributions. Furthermore, molecular dating and geological evidence suggest that this group of mushrooms originated during the Eocene in eastern Asia, followed by dispersal to and subsequent speciation in other parts of Asia, Europe, and the Americas from the middle Miocene through the early Pliocene. In contrast to the ancient dispersal of porcini in the strict sense in the Northern Hemisphere, the occurrence of B. reticulatus and B. edulis sensu lato in the Southern Hemisphere was probably due to recent human-mediated introductions. Copyright: ß 2012 Feng et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding:
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e37567. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63926. · 3.73 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from