We describe the miniemulsion polymerization of vinyl monomers stabilized in the presence of the polymerizable anionic surfactant Tego XP-1008 and the polymerizable nonionic surfactant Tego XP-1007. Different amounts of polymerizable surfactants and various types of initiators were used to investigate the size and the stability of the final latex particles by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light-scattering measurements. The grafting of the polymerizable surfactants onto the surface of the latex particles was checked by NMR and XPS measurements and was found to be efficient. Finally, polymerizations of appropriate formulations containing divinylbenzene with the polymerizable surfactant Tego XP-1008 in the presence of a larger amount of hydrophobic agent produced nanocapsules.
"Aiming at nanocapsules with aqueous core, this classic reaction is not suitable, as the diacid chloride reacts to the unreactive diacid, upon contact with water which is a “dead end” and cannot participate in polymerization. Besides a very special monomer pair (hydrophilic vinyl ether and hydrophobic maleates) (Scott et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2006) for strictly alternating radical polymerization and the metathesis polymerization of acrylated dextran and unsaturated organophosphates (Malzahn et al., 2014b), mainly polyaddition reactions of a polyol or a polyamine with diisocyanates to generate polyurethane or polyurea are reported (Crespy et al., 2006). An aqueous solution of the water soluble component, such as low molecular compounds (Paiphansiri et al., 2009), polysaccharides (Crespy et al., 2006; Baier et al., 2012, 2013), or peptides (Andrieu et al., 2012), is dispersed in a solution of a surfactant in an inert solvent, typically a hydrocarbon, such as cyclohexane or isooctane. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of polymers from natural resources can bring many benefits for novel polymeric nanoparticle systems. Such polymers have a variety of beneficial properties such as biodegradability and biocompatibility, they are readily available on large scale and at low cost. As the amount of fossil fuels decrease, their application becomes more interesting even if characterization is in many cases more challenging due to structural complexity, either by broad distribution of their molecular weights (polysaccharides, polyesters, lignin) or by complex structure (proteins, lignin). This review summarizes different sources and methods for the preparation of biopolymer-based nanoparticle systems for various applications.
Frontiers in Chemistry 07/2014; 2:49. DOI:10.3389/fchem.2014.00049
"Macromomoners with sulfobetaine groups and a styrene end group were synthesized by derivatization of macromonomers of 2-(dimethylamino )ethyl methacrylate and were successfully employed as surfmers for the emulsion polymerization of styrene . It was shown that nanocapsules with phosphate groups on their surface could be synthesized with a phosphate-functionalized surfmer . A double functionality can also be introduced as shown for the synthesis of surfmers that are also fluorescent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this highlight is to demonstrate the importance of the surface functionalization of nanoparticles toward the design of high-tech (nano)materials. These (nano)materials are “nano-tools” for the already established interdisciplinary research fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, which find an enormous variety of applications in different areas. In many cases, the particle-forming material, shape, and size determine the applicability of the desired nanoparticle. Nevertheless, in most of the cases other parameters must also be accurately adjusted to transform those nano-objects into functional nanoparticles, such as dispersibility, stability, reactivity, ability to recognize (or to be recognized by) other systems, and the interaction between these parameters and a matrix or dispersing medium. Most of these parameters are mainly depending on the surface characteristics of the nanoparticles. Thus, this highlight focuses not only on the importance of the surface functionalization of the nanoparticles to render them applicable, but also on the different strategies to design and obtain surface-functionalized nanoparticles (SF-NPs) and on their successful exploitation in materials science, formulation of organic–inorganic hybrid nanostructures and bio-applications.
Current Organic Chemistry 05/2013; 17(9):900-912. DOI:10.2174/1385272811317090004 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized and used as costabilizer in the miniemulsion polymerization of styrene (St)
initiated by 60Co γ-ray radiation at room temperature. Only 2wt% PU based on the monomer was enough to prepare a stable miniemulsion with
a shelf life of more than 12months. Preservation of original particle size and distribution throughout the polymerization
observed from dynamic light scattering measurements indicates the predominance of monomer droplet nucleation. Kinetic analysis
shows that there is no constant rate stage, which also suggests a droplet nucleation mechanism. Polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles
with relatively small diameters (40–70nm) and narrow size distribution could be easily prepared. The effects of surfactant,
costabilizer, and absorbed dose rate on the miniemulsion polymerization were discussed.
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