Synthesis of polymer particles and nanocapsules stabilized with PEO/PPO containing polymerizable surfactants in miniemulsion
ABSTRACT We describe the miniemulsion polymerization of vinyl monomers stabilized in the presence of the polymerizable anionic surfactant Tego XP-1008 and the polymerizable nonionic surfactant Tego XP-1007. Different amounts of polymerizable surfactants and various types of initiators were used to investigate the size and the stability of the final latex particles by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light-scattering measurements. The grafting of the polymerizable surfactants onto the surface of the latex particles was checked by NMR and XPS measurements and was found to be efficient. Finally, polymerizations of appropriate formulations containing divinylbenzene with the polymerizable surfactant Tego XP-1008 in the presence of a larger amount of hydrophobic agent produced nanocapsules.
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- "Macromomoners with sulfobetaine groups and a styrene end group were synthesized by derivatization of macromonomers of 2-(dimethylamino )ethyl methacrylate and were successfully employed as surfmers for the emulsion polymerization of styrene . It was shown that nanocapsules with phosphate groups on their surface could be synthesized with a phosphate-functionalized surfmer . A double functionality can also be introduced as shown for the synthesis of surfmers that are also fluorescent. "
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this highlight is to demonstrate the importance of the surface functionalization of nanoparticles toward the design of high-tech (nano)materials. These (nano)materials are “nano-tools” for the already established interdisciplinary research fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, which find an enormous variety of applications in different areas. In many cases, the particle-forming material, shape, and size determine the applicability of the desired nanoparticle. Nevertheless, in most of the cases other parameters must also be accurately adjusted to transform those nano-objects into functional nanoparticles, such as dispersibility, stability, reactivity, ability to recognize (or to be recognized by) other systems, and the interaction between these parameters and a matrix or dispersing medium. Most of these parameters are mainly depending on the surface characteristics of the nanoparticles. Thus, this highlight focuses not only on the importance of the surface functionalization of the nanoparticles to render them applicable, but also on the different strategies to design and obtain surface-functionalized nanoparticles (SF-NPs) and on their successful exploitation in materials science, formulation of organic–inorganic hybrid nanostructures and bio-applications.Current Organic Chemistry 05/2013; 17(9):900-912. DOI:10.2174/1385272811317090004 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polyurethane (PU) was successfully synthesized and used as costabilizer in the miniemulsion polymerization of styrene (St) initiated by 60Co γ-ray radiation at room temperature. Only 2wt% PU based on the monomer was enough to prepare a stable miniemulsion with a shelf life of more than 12months. Preservation of original particle size and distribution throughout the polymerization observed from dynamic light scattering measurements indicates the predominance of monomer droplet nucleation. Kinetic analysis shows that there is no constant rate stage, which also suggests a droplet nucleation mechanism. Polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles with relatively small diameters (40–70nm) and narrow size distribution could be easily prepared. The effects of surfactant, costabilizer, and absorbed dose rate on the miniemulsion polymerization were discussed.Colloid and Polymer Science 06/2007; 285(10):1093-1100. DOI:10.1007/s00396-007-1659-z · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this research, polystyrene (PSt) nanocapsules with liquid cores were prepared by 60Co γ-ray radiation induced miniemulsion polymerization, in which N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was used as the polar monomer. The characterization of polymer was carried out by 1H NMR. It was verified that during polymerization, graft copolymerization between poly (pyrrolidone) (PVP) and PSt had taken place instead of random copolymerization. The interfacial tension between polymer and water was reduced because of the grafting reaction that had occurred, which was helpful to form nanocapsules. The influence of the ratio of St to NVP, the type and amount of the surfactant and the monomer/dodocane ratio on the particle morphology was studied by TEM. Finally, the releasing process of the synthesized nanoparticles was monitored by UV–vis measurement.European Polymer Journal 07/2007; 43(7-43):2848-2855. DOI:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2007.04.013 · 3.24 Impact Factor