Synthesis of polymer particles and nanocapsules stabilized with PEO/PPO containing polymerizable surfactants in miniemulsion
ABSTRACT We describe the miniemulsion polymerization of vinyl monomers stabilized in the presence of the polymerizable anionic surfactant Tego XP-1008 and the polymerizable nonionic surfactant Tego XP-1007. Different amounts of polymerizable surfactants and various types of initiators were used to investigate the size and the stability of the final latex particles by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light-scattering measurements. The grafting of the polymerizable surfactants onto the surface of the latex particles was checked by NMR and XPS measurements and was found to be efficient. Finally, polymerizations of appropriate formulations containing divinylbenzene with the polymerizable surfactant Tego XP-1008 in the presence of a larger amount of hydrophobic agent produced nanocapsules.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this highlight is to demonstrate the importance of the surface functionalization of nanoparticles toward the design of high-tech (nano)materials. These (nano)materials are “nano-tools” for the already established interdisciplinary research fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, which find an enormous variety of applications in different areas. In many cases, the particle-forming material, shape, and size determine the applicability of the desired nanoparticle. Nevertheless, in most of the cases other parameters must also be accurately adjusted to transform those nano-objects into functional nanoparticles, such as dispersibility, stability, reactivity, ability to recognize (or to be recognized by) other systems, and the interaction between these parameters and a matrix or dispersing medium. Most of these parameters are mainly depending on the surface characteristics of the nanoparticles. Thus, this highlight focuses not only on the importance of the surface functionalization of the nanoparticles to render them applicable, but also on the different strategies to design and obtain surface-functionalized nanoparticles (SF-NPs) and on their successful exploitation in materials science, formulation of organic–inorganic hybrid nanostructures and bio-applications.Current Organic Chemistry 05/2013; 17(9):900-912. DOI:10.2174/1385272811317090004 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The search for mimicking natural living and non-living systems with synthetic products leads to the fabrication of advanced colloidal morphologies with hierarchical micro- and nanostructures. Different chemical routes toward the synthesis of colloids with complex morphologies are presented and a tentative analogy between these routes and the four basic arithmetic operations is proposed.Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics 06/2012; 213(12-12):1183-1189. DOI:10.1002/macp.201200124 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report the use of commercially available long-chain tertiary amines as smart switchable surfactants or hydrophobic oils in miniemulsions. Miniemulsion droplets were stabilized by employing the charged tertiary amine as surfactants to prevent coalescence. PMMA and PS nanoparticles were obtained by polymerizing the monomer droplets. Furthermore, the dispersions could be aggregated by bubbling argon (Ar) at 60 °C or by increasing their pH. In both cases, the nanoparticles could be re-dispersed by charging the dispersions with CO2 at room temperature. The same tertiary amines in their neutral form were used as soft liquid templates in miniemulsion droplets. Core–shell nanoparticles, with the hydrophobic tertiary amine as the core and polyvinylformal (PVF) as the shell, were prepared by the emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. By charging the nanocapsules with CO2, the hydrophobic core was transformed to the water soluble ammonium bicarbonate salt. Thus, aqueous dispersions of polymer nanocapsules with a hydrophilic core could be prepared without the conventional transfer of capsules from oil to aqueous dispersions. This method provides a direct pathway to synthesize polymer nanocapsules mimicking natural compartmentalized systems such as liposomes and cells, with aqueous media present inside and outside the compartments.Soft Matter 11/2012; 8(46):11687-11696. DOI:10.1039/C2SM26440D · 4.15 Impact Factor