Health implications of nanoparticles
ABSTRACT Nanoparticles are increasingly used in a wide range of applications in science, technology and medicine. Since they are produced for specific purposes which cannot be met by larger particles and bulk material they are likely to be highly reactive, in particular, with biological systems. On the other hand a large body of know-how in environmental sciences is available from toxicological effects of ultrafine particles (smaller than 100nm in size) after inhalation. Since nanoparticles feature similar reactivity as ultrafine particles a sustainable development of new emerging nanoparticles is required. This paper gives a brief review on the dosimetry of nanoparticles, including deposition in the various regions of the respiratory tract and systemic translocation and uptake in secondary target organs, epidemiologic associations with health effects and toxicology of inhaled nanoparticles. General principles and current paradigms to explain for the specific behaviour of nanoparticles in toxicology are discussed. With that respect we consider nanoparticles to be in the range from 1 to 2nm (clusters of atoms/molecules) to particles that are smaller than 100nm at least in one dimension. Since the evidence for health risks of ultrafine and nanoparticles after inhalation has been increasing over the last decade, the paper attempts to extrapolate these findings and principles observed in particle inhalation toxicology into recommendations for an integrated concept of risk assessment of nanoparticles for a broad range of use in science, technology and medicine.
Article: Effects of nano-sized silicon dioxide on the structures and activities of three functional proteins.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nanomaterials are finding increasing use in industrial production and daily life. However, human exposure to them may cause health risks. Nano-SiO(2) was selected as a representative nanomaterial and its potential effects were investigated in terms of its interactions with cytochrome c (cyt c), deoxyribonuclease (DNase II) and hemoglobin (Hb). The interactions accorded with Langmuir isothermal adsorption; the saturation binding numbers for cyt c, DNase II and Hb were 42+/-5, 24+/-2 and 1.1+/-0.1 micromol/g nano-SiO(2) particle at pH 7.4, respectively, and the corresponding stability constants were 6.15 x 105, 1.79 x 106 and 2.6 x 107 M(-1). On the basis of the binding constants and of zeta-potential fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) measurements and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), it was found that the three functional proteins can bridge nano-SiO(2) particles via charge attraction and hydrogen bonding and aggregate them into coralloid forms. The interactions also changed the secondary structures of the proteins and inhibited their static and dynamic activities. It may reasonably be deduced that exposure to nano-size silicon dioxide particles e.g. as drug carriers may have an unfavorable effect on human health by inactivating functional proteins.Journal of hazardous materials 08/2010; 180(1-3):375-83. · 4.14 Impact Factor
Article: Thirdhand smoke: heterogeneous oxidation of nicotine and secondary aerosol formation in the indoor environment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoking is well-known as a significant source of primary indoor air pollutants. However, only recently has thirdhand smoke (THS) been recognized as a contributor to indoor pollution due to the role of indoor surfaces. Here, the effects of relative humidity (<10% RH and ∼ 45% RH) and substrate (cellulose, cotton, and paper) on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from nicotine-ozone-NO(x) reactions are discussed. SOA formation from the sorbed nicotine-ozone reaction ([O(3)] = 55 ppb) varied in size distribution and number, depending on RH and substrate type, indicating the role of substrate and water interactions in SOA formation. This led to SOA yields from cellulose sorbed nicotine-ozone reaction of ∼ 1 and 2% for wet and dry conditions, respectively. SOA formation from nicotine-NO(x) reactions was not distinguishable from background levels. Simultaneously, cellulose sorbed nicotine-ozone reaction kinetics ([O(3)] = 55 ppb) were obtained and revealed pseudofirst-order surface rate constants of k(1) = (1 ± 0. 5) × 10(-3) and k(1) < 10(-4) min(-1) under <10% and ∼ 45% RH, respectively. Given the toxicity of some of the identified products and that small particles may contribute to adverse health effects, the present study indicates that exposure to THS ozonation products may pose additional health risks.Environmental Science & Technology 01/2011; 45(1):328-33. · 4.80 Impact Factor
Article: Laboratory and field testing of an automated atmospheric particle-bound reactive oxygen species sampling-analysis system.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study, various laboratory and field tests were performed to develop an effective automated particle-bound ROS sampling-analysis system. The system uses 2' 7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) fluorescence method as a nonspecific, general indicator of the particle-bound ROS. A sharp-cut cyclone and a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) were used to collect PM(2.5) atmospheric particles into slurry produced by a DCFH-HRP solution. The laboratory results show that the DCFH and H(2)O(2) standard solutions could be kept at room temperature for at least three and eight days, respectively. The field test in Rochester, NY, shows that the average ROS concentration was 8.3 ± 2.2 nmol of equivalent H(2)O(2) m(-3) of air. The ROS concentrations were observed to be greater after foggy conditions. This study demonstrates the first practical automated sampling-analysis system to measure this ambient particle component.Journal of Toxicology 01/2011; 2011:419476.