Docking and SAR studies of D- and L-isofagomine isomers as human β-glucocerebrosidase inhibitors

Department of Hospital Pharmacy, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.79). 06/2011; 19(11):3558–3568. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.04.011

ABSTRACT We report the structure–activity relationship of a series of D-, and L-isofagomine and fagomine isomers as glycosidase inhibitors. Our study revealed that a positive charge at the anomeric position of d-isofagomines enhanced the potency toward β-glycosidases, while the epimerization at the C3 OH group drastically reduced their inhibitory potency by over three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, D-3,4-di-epi-isofagomine abolished their inhibition activities against all enzymes. L-Isofagomine was also a fairly potent inhibitor of human β-glucocerebrosidase, with an IC50 value of 8.7 μM. A molecular docking study revealed that the positions and orientations of the piperidine ring of D-3-epi-isofagomine in the binding site was similar to that of D-isofagomine, while D-3-epi-isofagomine missed the hydrogen bond interactions between Asp127 and the 3-OH group and between Trp179 and the 3-OH group. Furthermore, the top 10 docking models ranked by IFDscore suggested that D-3,4-di-epi-isofagomine can not bind to β-glucocerebrosidase at a stable interaction mode. These results provide an insight into the structural requirements of isofagomine isomers for developing a new type of pharmacological chaperone for Gaucher disease.

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Atsushi Kato